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Title: SEOUL CITY SUE
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Registered: 12/06/2008

(Date Posted:10/18/2010 10:49 PM)
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Seoul City Sue


Anna Wallis Suh

Anna Wallis Suh, Korea, c. 1930
BornAnna Wallis
Lawrence County, Arkansas, United States
Died1969 (aged 68–69)
North Korea
Cause of deathExecution (firing squad)
NationalityAmerican
Other namesSeoul City Sue
Anna Wallace Suhr
EducationSoutheastern State Teachers College
Scarritt College for Christian Workers
OccupationEducator
EmployerMethodist Missionary Organization
Shanghai American School
US Legation Seoul
Korean Central News Agency
Known forAnnouncing propaganda on North Korean radio during the Korean War
ReligionMethodist
SpouseSuh Kyoon Chul
ParentsAlbert B. and M. J. Wallis

Anna Wallis Suh (1900–1969), the woman generally associated[1] with the nickname Seoul City Sue, was a Methodist missionary, educator, and North Korea propaganda radio announcer to United States forces during the Korean War.

Anna was born in Arkansas, the sixth of six children. After her mother and father died in 1910 and 1914, she relocated to Oklahoma to join a sister's family while she completed high school. She spent her early adult years as an office clerk and Sunday school teacher. Subsequently, she studied at the Southeastern State Teachers College, in Durant, Oklahoma, and the Scarritt College for Christian Workers in Nashville, Tennessee, graduating in 1930 with a B.A. in ministry. She spent the next eight years working as a member of the American Southern Methodist Episcopal Mission in Korea. As Japanese colonial authorities continued to restrict the activities of foreign missions, Anna joined the staff of Shanghai American School (SAS) in 1938. There she met and married fellow staff member Suh Kyoon Chul, in so doing losing her American citizenship. Late in World War II, she was interned by the Japanese for two years with other ethnic Europeans at a camp in suburban Shanghai. After release, she resumed work at SAS for a year, before returning to Korea with her husband in 1946.

The Suhs settled in Seoul, where Anna taught at the US Legation school until being fired in 1949 due to suspicion of her husband for left wing political activities. They remained or were trapped in Seoul during the North's invasion of South Korea in June, 1950. Anna began announcing a short English language program for North Korean "Radio Seoul" starting on or about July 18, continuing until shortly after the Inchon landing on September 15, when the Suhs were evacuated north as a part of the general withdrawal of North Korean forces. The Suhs participated in the political indoctrination of US POWs at a camp near Pyongyang in February, 1951.

Charles Robert Jenkins reported that, some time after the war, Anna Suh was put in charge of English language publications for the Korean Central News Agency. He also wrote that he saw her in a photo for a 1962 propaganda pamphlet, and met her briefly in 1965 at a department Store in Pyongyang. Jenkins stated that he was told in 1972 that Suh had been shot as a South Korean double agent in 1969.


[edit]
Early life

Scarritt College

She was born Anna Wallis to Albert B. and M. Jane Wallis[2] in 1900 in Lawrence County, Arkansas. She was the youngest of six children.[3]

Anna's parents died when she was young; her mother died some time between the 1900 and 1910 Census,[4][5] and her father in October, 1914.[6] Subsequently, she relocated to Oklahoma with a sister.[7]Anna attended the Southeastern State Teachers College, in Durant, Oklahoma, before transferring to theScarritt College for Christian Workers, an institution dedicated to the training of Methodist missionaries, in Nashville, Tennessee. Ann graduated with a B.A. in 1930.[8]

[edit]Korean mission and China

That same year, she was selected for a mission to Korea by the Southern Methodist Conference.[9] There, she initially taught at a Methodist school.[10] By the early 1930s, the Japanese colonial administration had largely banned foreigners from Christian proselytizing, and most Christian missions focused on education, medicine, and care for the indigent.[11], She may have returned to the US in 1935 to visit a sister.[12] In late 1936, she was appointed to serve at the Seoul Social Evangelistic Center, and in February 1937, visited Scarritt College during a missionary furlough.[13]

In a move that may have reflected increasingly harsh Japanese measures against foreign missionaries in the late 30s,[11][14] Anna relocated to China to join the staff of the Shanghai American School (SAS) in 1938. There she met Suh Kyoon Chul, who was hired to teach Korean and assist in school administration. She was dropped from the rolls of the missionary service and lost her United States citizenship after they married. She developed an interest in Korean politics, eventually taking up her husband's leftist views.[15][16][17] The cosmopolitan Shanghai International Settlement and French Concession were likely a more accepting environment for the Suhs than homogeneous 1940s Korea would later prove to be, as suggested by the number of other Caucasian women on staff married to Asian men.[18][19] In 1939, she visited San Francisco in an unsuccessful attempt to secure a US passport for her husband.[20]

[edit]Sino-Japanese War

Americans in Shanghai began to depart that same year, slowly as tensions rose in the environs of the city, then en masse shortly before the US and Japan officially went to war. SAS remained open until February 1943,[21] when the remaining foreign staff were forced into the ChapeiCivilian Relocation Center, a short distance away in the northern suburbs.[18] This internment camp, one of several in and around Shanghai, occupied a three story dormitory on the grounds of Great China University (now East China Normal University), most of which was damaged or destroyed during the 1937 Battle of Shanghai.[22]

Whether as a part of the remaining school staff or on her own, Anna also entered the Chapei center at this time, while her husband may have remained free as a colonial subject of Japan. During the internment, the SAS staff and parents took advantage of the school's books that had followed them to organize classes for the children. Supplies with which to maintain the internees grew short towards the end of the war, and a number of women married to citizens of Axis powers or neutral countries were released in late 1944. It is possible that Anna was among these.[23]

With Anna's formal release from detention at the end of World War II,[24] she joined the staff of the reconstituted SAS for the 1945-46 school year.[18]

[edit]Korean War

Unable to continue earning a sufficient living in post-war Shanghai,[20] she and her husband returned to liberated Korea, where she tutored children at the US Diplomatic Mission School in Seoul. Her employment was terminated after her husband was investigated for left wing activities.[25] Shortly thereafter, North Korea invaded the South in June, 1950.

The Korean People's Army occupied Seoul three days after the start of hostilities. The speed of the advance caught the majority of residents by surprise and unprepared to evacuate, in part due to ROK radio propaganda rather at odds with the actual situation.[26][27] Anna and her husband remained as well, perhaps because he was unwilling to abandon a school for indigent boys that he administered. During a July 10 meeting in Seoul that included 48 to 60 members of the ROK National Assembly, the couple pledged their loyalty to the North Korean regime.[28][29]

Under Dr. Lee Soo, an English instructor from Seoul University, Anna began announcing for North Korean "Radio Seoul" from the Korean Broadcasting System's HLKA studios, with daily programs from 9:30 to 10:15 pm local time,[30] first heard as early as July 18. The Suhs had been relocated to a temporary home near the station.[15] Suh's defenders gave the dull tone of her broadcasts as proof that she was being forced to make them.[31]

Her initial scripts suggested that American soldiers return to their corner ice cream stands, criticized the USAF bombing campaign, and reported names recovered from the dog tags of dead American soldiers to a background of soft music.[32][33] The G.I.s gave her various nicknames, including Rice Ball or Rice Bowl Maggie, Rice Ball Kate, and Seoul City Sue.[34][35] The latter name stuck, likely derived from "Sioux City Sue",[36] the title of a song initially made popular by Zeke Manners[37][38][39] from 1946. Through the rest of the summer of 1950, her reports would announce the names of recently captured US airmen, marines, and soldiers,[40][41][42] threaten new units arriving in country,[43] welcome warships by name as they arrived on station,[44] or taunt African American soldiers regarding their limited civil rights at home.[45] Her monotone on-air delivery and the lack of popular music programming evidently left Ann's broadcasts less enjoyable for her intended audience than German and Japanese English language radio shows during World War II.[46]

Radio Seoul went off the air at the start of a "Sue" program during an August 13 air strike on communications and transportation facilities in the city, as a B-26 bomber dropped 200 lbs fragmentation bombs adjacent to the transmitter. The station came back on the air a week or two later.[47] The Suhs were evacuated north by truck after the Inchon landings, a few days before US forces entered the city.[48][49][50] Mr. & Mrs. Suh indoctrinated UN POWs at Camp 12 near Pyongyang in Feb, '51, after which the POWs were directed to continue indoctrinating each other, with Korean supervision.[51]

[edit]Later life

Fellow defector Charles Robert Jenkins made several claims about Suh in his book The Reluctant Communist that have not been independently verified. He reported that, some time after the war, she was put in charge of English language publications for the Korean Central News Agency. He wrote that he saw her in a photo for a 1962 propaganda pamphlet called "I Am A Lucky Boy", dining with Larry Allen Abshier, a US Army deserter and defector. Jenkins reported meeting her briefly in 1965 at the "foreigners only" section of the No. 2 Department Store in Pyongyang. Jenkins also stated that he was told in 1972 that Suh had been shot as a South Korean double agent in 1969.[52]

[edit]Nationality

Based on US law through the 1930s, citizenship for a married woman was almost exclusively based on that of her husband, particularly if they lived in his native land. Therefore, Anna Wallis probably lost her US citizenship when she married Mr. Suh in China.[53] Mr. Suh, as well as all other native residents of Korea and Taiwan, were nationals of the Empire of Japan, which recognized itself as a multi-ethnic state.[54][55]Anna may not have recognized her situation until the 1939 visit to San Francisco to secure a US passport for her husband. In addition to her status as a Japanese national, the US had almost completely frozen Asian immigration with the Immigration Act of 1924, which would likely have precluded his obtaining a passport.

Arbitrary application of Japanese and US law may have dogged Anna over the following years. When the Japanese interned most ethnic Europeans within the Empire during World War II, it is not clear whether she was forced into the Chapei Relocation Center, or entered it willingly, since she was not a foreign national. Later, during the US military occupation of southern Korea, an attempt was made to restore her US citizenship, an effort which fell through for unknown reasons.[15][20] It is possible that she became a national of South Korea as the wife of Mr. Suh. The Korean nationality that became reestablished between the end of World War II and the formal independence of the ROK in 1948 didn't distinguish between spouses.[56] Although US forces sought her out after retaking Seoul in September, 1950, officials recognized that it was unlikely that Mrs. Suh could be charged with treason by the US.[15][20]

[edit]In popular culture

During the Korean War, USAF pilots improvised a spoof of the Zeke Manner's hit "Sioux City Sue" using the most popular nickname for Ms. Suh.[57]

In multiple episodes of the TV series M*A*S*H a North Korean announcer calling herself "Seoul City Sue" is heard on the radio (rebroadcast over the camp's PA). In "Bombed" she tells the GIs that their wives and girlfriends are being unfaithful and they would have more prosperous careers as civilians. In "38 Across" she accuses Hawkeye Pierce of war crimes for performing an experimental technique to save successfully the life of a North Korean POW.[58]

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Score:1326
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Registered:12/06/2008

BAGHDAD BOB
(Date Posted:10/18/2010 10:51 PM)

Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf


Muhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf
محمد سعيد الصحاف
BornMuhammad Saeed al-Sahhaf
1940
Iraq HillaIraq
NationalityIraqi
EducationBaghdad University
Occupationformer Iraqi Information Minister
Political partyBa'ath Party
ReligionMuslim

Mohammed Saeed al-Sahhaf (Arabicمحمد سعيد الصحاف‎ also Mohammed Said al-Sahhaf) (born 1940) is a former Iraqi diplomat and politician. He came to wide prominence around the world during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, during which he was the Iraqi Information Minister under Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, acting as the mouthpiece for the Baath Party and Saddam's regime. He is best known for his grandiose and grossly unrealistic propaganda broadcasts prior to and during the war, extolling the invincibility of the Iraqi Army and the permanence of Saddam's rule. His announcements were intended for an Iraqi domestic audience subject to Saddam's cult of personality and total state censorship, and were met with widespread derision and amusement by Western nationals and others with access to up-to-date information from international media organizations.

He is perhaps best remembered for his his final broadcast in which he agitatedly declared that US troops were defeated and committing mass suicide at the gates of Baghdad, and that there were "no US tanks in Baghdad", all while al-Sahhaf's camera clearly showed several US tanks maneuvering through the city streets behind him less than a mile from his position.


Al-Sahhaf was born in Hilla, near Karbala. After studying journalism[1] at Baghdad University he graduated with a Masters degree in English literature.[2] He planned to become an English teacher[1] before joining the Ba'ath Party in 1963. In the early days of the Ba'athist regime he read out regular announcements of recently executed Iraqis on state television.[3] He served as Ambassador to SwedenBurma, the United Nations and Italy, before returning to Iraq to serve as Foreign Minister in 1992. The reasons for his removal as Foreign Minister in April 2001 are unclear, but his achievements in the position were often claimed to be less satisfactory than that of his predecessor, Tariq Aziz. At least one report suggests that Uday Hussein, son of the President Saddam Hussein, was responsible for the removal. He was very sectarian in his choices of staff during his tenure as Foreign Minister, with the entire office of the ministry being Shiite Arabs.[edit]
Before the Iraq war

[edit]During the Iraq war

Al-Sahhaf is known for his daily press briefings in Baghdad during the 2003 Iraq War. His colorful appearances caused him to be nicknamedBaghdad Bob[4] (in the style of previous propagandists with alliterative aliases such as "Hanoi Hannah" and "Seoul City Sue" as well as other propagandists without alliterative nicknames like "Tokyo Rose") by commentators in the United States and Comical Ali (an allusion toChemical Ali, the nickname of former Iraqi Defence Minister Ali Hassan al-Majid) by commentators in the United Kingdom; commentators inItaly similarly nicknamed him Alì il Comico.

Al-Sahhaf said that Americans and British were attacking civilians: "They bombed civilian neighborhoods and those cowards used cluster bombs." [5] He denied that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.

On April 7, 2003, al-Sahhaf claimed that there were no American troops in Baghdad, and that the Americans were committing suicide by the hundreds at the city's gates. At that time, American tanks were patrolling the streets only a few hundred meters from the location where the press conference was held, and were clearly visible behind him.[6] His last public appearance as Information Minister was on April 8, 2003, when he said that the Americans "are going to surrender or be burned in their tanks. They will surrender, it is they who will surrender".

He gained something of a cult following in the West, appearing on T-shirts, cartoons, and from internet phenomena came satirical websites. One such site featured sound bites of the minister, as well as photoshopped pictures of him on the Star Wars Death Star, at The Battle of Waterloo and at the D-Day landings, in all cases maintaining that "everything is just fine."[7]

[edit]Post-war life

On June 25, 2003, the London newspaper The Daily Mirror reported that al-Sahhaf had been captured by coalition troops at a roadblock in Baghdad.[8] The report was not confirmed by military authorities and was denied by al-Sahhaf's family through Abu Dhabi TV. The next day al-Sahhaf himself recorded an interview for the Dubai-based al-Arabiya news channel.[9] Al-Sahhaf said that he had surrendered to US forces, had been interrogated by them and released.[10] He was reportedly paid as much as $200,000 for the television interview, during which he appeared very withdrawn in contrast with the bombastic persona he projected during the war. Many of his answers consisted of a simple "yes" or "no". He refused to speculate on the causes of the downfall of the Iraqi government and answered only "history will tell" when asked if video clips purporting to prove that Saddam Hussein was alive were genuine, amid speculation at that time that Hussein had been killed during the war.

His fame quickly evaporated as the war continued into the insurgency phase; from the middle of 2003 onward, he faded from the public spotlight, and was no longer a figure in the war.

Although questioned by American authorities, al-Sahhaf was released, and there has been no suggestion of charging or detaining him for his role in the Saddam Hussein government. He is now living in the United Arab Emirates with his family.

When asked where he had got his information he replied, "authentic sources—many authentic sources".[11] He pointed out that he "was a professional, doing his job".

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AXIS SALLY
(Date Posted:10/18/2010 10:53 PM)

Mildred Gillars


Mildred Gillars

Mildred Gillars (Bureau of Prisons ID photo)
BornMildred Elizabeth Sisk
November 29, 1900
PortlandMaine
DiedJune 25, 1988 (aged 87)
Columbus, Ohio
Resting placeSaint Joseph Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio
NationalityAmerican/German
Other namesMidge at the Mike
Axis Sally
EducationOhio Wesleyan University
Hunter College
OccupationAnnouncer and Actress
EmployerReichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft, German State Radio
Known forPresenting Nazi propaganda on German State Radio in World War II
ReligionCatholic
ParentsVincent and Mae Sisk

Mildred Elizabeth Gillars (November 29, 1900 – June 25, 1988) was an American broadcaster of Nazi propaganda during World War II. She was convicted of treason in 1949 and sentenced to imprisonment for 10 to 30 years.


Born Mildred Elizabeth Sisk in PortlandMaine she took the surname Gillars in 1911 after her mother remarried.[edit]
Biography

In 1918 she enrolled at Ohio Wesleyan University to study dramatic arts but left before graduating.

She then moved to Greenwich VillageNew York City where she worked in various low-skill jobs to finance drama lessons. She toured with stock companies and appeared in vaudeville but she was unable to establish a theatrical career.

With financial assistance from her grandmother she enrolled at Hunter College in New York City. There in 1925 she met Max Otto Koischwitz, a German immigrant professor who would later have a profound impact on her life.

In 1929 she left the U.S. for France. She worked as an artist’s model in Paris and in 1933 she resided in Algiers, working as a dressmaker's assistant.[1][2]

Then in 1934 she moved to Dresden, Germany, to study music, later being employed as a teacher of English at the Berlitz School of Languages in Berlin.

In 1940 she again met Max Koischwitz who had returned to Germany that year and through her renewed relationship with him she obtained work as an announcer with the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft, German State Radio. Together they formed a powerful propaganda duet.

[edit]Propaganda for Nazi Germany

Gillars was the most famous American collaborator broadcasting to U.S. forces in Europe during World War II. She usually introduced herself as "Midge at the Mike", but American troops nicknamed her "Axis Sally".

Gillars was not the only Axis radio announcer known as "Sally". Rita Zucca, an announcer on the "Jerry's Front" program broadcast from Italy called herself "Sally" and her broadcasts were sometimes incorrectly attributed to Gillars.

Gillars’ main programs from Berlin were:

‘Home Sweet Home Hour’, from December 24, 1942, until 1945,[3] a regular propaganda program the purpose of which was to make American forces in Europe feel homesick. A running theme of these broadcasts was the infidelity of soldiers' wives and sweethearts while the listeners were stationed in Europe and North Africa.

‘Midge-at-the-Mike’, broadcast from March to late fall 1943,[4] in which she played American songs interspersed with defeatist propaganda, anti-Semitic rhetoric and attacks on Franklin D. Roosevelt.[5]

‘G. I.’s Letter-box’ and ‘Medical Reports' 1944,[6] directed at the US home audience in which Gillars used information on wounded and captured US airmen to cause fear and worry in their families. After D-Day, June 6, 1944, US soldiers wounded and captured in France were also reported on. Gillars and Koischwitz worked for a time from Chartres and Paris for this purpose, visiting hospitals and interviewing POWs.[7] In 1943 they had toured POW camps in Germany, interviewing captured Americans and recording their messages for their families in the U.S. The interviews were then edited for broadcast as though the speakers were well-treated or sympathetic to the Nazi cause.

Gillars made her most notorious broadcast on May 11, 1944, just prior to the D-Day invasion of Normandy, France, in a radio play written by Koischwitz, ‘Vision Of Invasion’. In this she played Evelyn, an Ohio mother, who dreams that her son had died a horrific death on a ship in the English Channel during an attempted invasion of Occupied Europe.

Koischwitz died in August 1944 and Gillars' broadcasts became lackluster and repetitive without his creative energy. She remained in Berlin until the end of the war. Her last broadcast was on May 6, 1945, just two days before the German surrender.

[edit]Arrest

After the war, Gillars lived under various aliases in Berlin until she was arrested there by the U.S. Army on March 20, 1946.[8] She was then held by the Counterintelligence Corps at Camp KingOberursel, until she was conditionally released from custody on December 24, 1946. However, she declined to leave military detention.[9] She was formally re-arrested on January 22, 1947[10] at the request of the Justice Department and was eventually flown to the United States to await trial on August 21, 1948.[11]

[edit]Trial

Gillars was indicted on September 10, 1948, and charged with 10 counts of treason but only 8 were proceeded with at her trial which began on January 25, 1949.

The prosecution relied on the large number of her programs recorded by the Federal Communications Commission stationed in Silver Hill, Maryland, to show her active participation in propaganda activities against the United States. It was also shown that she had made an oath of allegiance to Hitler.[12]

The defense argued that her broadcasts stated unpopular opinions but did not amount to treasonable conduct. It was also argued that she was under the hypnotic influence of Koischwitz and therefore not fully responsible for her actions until after his death.[13]

On March 10, 1949, the jury convicted Gillars on just one count of treason, that of making the ‘Vision Of Invasion’ broadcast. For this count alone she was sentenced to 10-to-30 years in prison.[14] and a $10,000 fine.

In 1950, a Federal appeals court upheld the sentence.[15]

[edit]Imprisonment

Gillars served her sentence at the Federal Reformatory for Women Alderson W.Va. She became eligible for parole in 1959 but did not apply for it[16] until 1961 when she was successful. She was released on June 10, 1961.

[edit]Later Life

Having converted to Catholicism while in prison, Mildred Gillars then went to live at the Our Lady of Bethlehem Convent in Columbus, Ohio, and taught German and French at St Joseph Academy, Columbus.

In 1973 she returned to Ohio Wesleyan University to complete her degree.[17]

Mildred Gillars died at Grant Medical Center in Columbus in 1988.[18]

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