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Topic :   Cooper: The irony of moving a peacemaker

The link is at .This is another attack on Southern heritage.

Cooper: The irony of moving a peacemaker

July 14th, 2017 by Clint Cooper in Opinion Free Press Read Time: 3 mins.

The nascent effort toward removing a bust of Confederate Lt. Gen. Alexander P. Stewart from the grounds of the Hamilton County Courthouse for racial motives is an irony, indeed, because of the Tennessean's role in the peacemaking creation of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park.

The Chattanooga chapter of the NAACP has begun an endeavor to engineer that removal, building off similar undertakings that have occurred in other Southern cities because of what have been called painful memories for blacks of the United States Civil War more than 150 years ago.

Stewart, who was not a notable battlefield figure but did lead a Confederate division against the Union at the Battle of Chickamauga on Sept. 19-20, 1863, later returned to Chattanooga after legislation was passed creating the national military park in Chickamauga. By that time, he had been an insurance company employee in St. Louis, mathematics professor at Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tenn., and chancellor at the University of Mississippi.

The former soldier, his Chattanooga biographer Sam Davis Elliott told the Times Free Press in 2011, "supervised in a lot of ways the startup of the battlefield [park]."

For those who don't bother to study history before attempting to remove it, the creation of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was set in motion with an 1889 barbecue on the Chickamauga battlefield to which veterans of the North and South were invited.

"Chattanooga welcomes the Blue and Gray to a barbecue to be given on Veterans Day, on Chickamauga Battlefield, where they will smoke the pipe of peace and bid each thought of conflict cease," the invitation read.

A year earlier, Union veterans Henry Boynton and Ferdinand Van Derveer had conceived the concept of a national military park while riding through the battlefield. This concept, they hoped, would involve the federal government, where previous battlefield preservation efforts had been private — as in Gettysburg, Pa. — and did not allow for Southern participation.

At the 1889 barbecue, 12,000 veterans from both sides — including Stewart — heard the park plans and enthusiastically supported them. Side by side, at the end of the meal the next day, they actually smoked commemorative peace pipes. One attendee, according to a 2014 Times Free Press history article by local Civil War expert Dr. Anthony Hodges, said, "Men embraced. Old veterans cried like infants as they clasped the hands" of former comrades and enemies.

Congress officially established the military park the next year, the oldest and largest in the country.

In accordance with the congressional act, according to Elliott, two of the commissioners of the park were to be appointed from civilian life, both veterans of the local battles. Although the measure didn't specify it, one was a Union veteran and the other a Confederate veteran, who was Stewart.

Stewart, as resident commissioner, "spent a great deal of time in the park, supervising road construction, the erection of towers and bridges, and the general engineering work of the park ."

Though past 70, he, according to Elliott, "learned to ride a bicycle, and by that means or on horseback traveled all about the park." His biographer said he continued to have spirited conversations about the war with friends on both sides and, to a New York writer, noted in his conclusion on what transpired "that Providence had a great deal to do with the affairs of men, and that human efforts, even those of men who were considered great, had very little to do with great achievements."

Stewart, who never owned slaves, didn't believe in slavery, opposed Tennessee secession and garnered the nickname "Old Straight," probably for his moral uprightness, wistfully concluded at the death of a friend, "It will not be long until the Confederate soldier will be a dream of the past, but his name will live in history, in story, in song and in tradition while the world stands."

Nevertheless, the Chattanooga chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy renamed its chapter for Stewart in 1904. The former park commissioner died in 1908, and the United Daughters of the Confederacy unveiled the now tarnished bronze bust on a marble base of him in 1919. The bust stands beside the walkway to the front doors of the courthouse, which are locked. So few people even pass the bust, whose subject was probably known to less than 1 percent of Hamilton County residents until the NAACP sought to remove it.

However, the bust stands not as a relic of the Jim Crow era or as glorification of the Confederacy, as the NAACP maintains. If it did, it would likely depict Gen. Braxton Bragg, Confederate victor at Chickamauga, Gen. Robert E. Lee, the best known Confederate hero of the war, or Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, the Tennessee native who was an early member of the Ku Klux Klan.

Stewart, on the other hand, was memorialized, at least in part, for his devoted role to the unification effort that resulted in the nation's first national military park. His was a uniting effort rather than the divisive one that attempts to remove him.

07/15/2017 12:07 AM

Topic :   'Antifa' radicals plan to desecrate Gettysburg graves

It's time for Southern and Northern  Deporables to show up in mass with their AR's to stand guard over these Gettysburg grave sites. 

Gettysburg's Facebook page is at 

06/28/2017 11:46 AM

Topic :   Andrew Jackson: The good, the bad, and the ugly

The link is at .

Andrew Jackson: The good, the bad, and the ugly

06/08/2017 11:55 AM

Topic :   Whiskey and the war: Alcohol played a role in the Civil War

The link is at .

Whiskey and the war: Alcohol played a role in the Civil War

October 21st, 2012 by Tim Omarzu in Life Entertainment Read Time: 4 mins.

Legend has it that when critics of Gen. Ulysses S. Grant complained to President Abraham Lincoln about Grant's drinking, Lincoln replied, "I wish some of you would tell me the brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals."

Grant's favorite brand is said to be Old Crow, a Kentucky straight bourbon whiskey that is still sold today.

With Steven Spielberg's film "Lincoln" due to hit theaters in November and the Civil War sesquicentennial under way, it's anyone's guess whether supporters of the North will scour liquor store shelves so they can sip Grant's favorite bourbon while Southern sympathizers seek a suitable counterpart.

One thing's certain: Whiskey and other forms of alcohol played a role in the epic conflict, from the tax on whiskey that helped fund the Union Army to an incident in Chattanooga that sent one of Grant's colonels home in disgrace.

"Grant was what we would call today a binge drinker," said Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park historian Jim Ogden.

And -- Lincoln's quip aside -- it was a serious matter to the North.

Chickamauga temptation

A principal responsibility for Grant's chief of staff, Brig. Gen. John Rawlins, was, Ogden said, "to make sure Grant did not succumb to the temptation ... to drink."

Grant decided before the war that he needed to get his drinking under control, Ogden said, which he did through abstinence.

But temptation loomed when Grant had his headquarters at the Latner House at 320 Walnut St. in downtown Chattanooga. Rawlins kept a wary eye on Col. Clark B. Lagow, one of Grant's staff officers who had a penchant for partying. Rawlins worried Lagow might offer Grant a drink.

"Rawlins goes to Grant and says [Lagow] must go," Ogden said. "He is setting you up for a fall from the wagon."

Things came to head before the Battle of Missionary Ridge, a key Union victory that took place on Nov. 24-25, 1863.

According to a diary from the time, Lagow threw "quite a disgraceful party" at the Latner House on Nov. 14.

"General Grant breaks up the party himself at 4 in the morning," Ogden said.

Lagow was "greatly mortified," Ogden said, and tendered his resignation not long after that.

Despite Grant's reputation as a drinker, Ogden said, "During the Civil War there is not a documented case where any use of alcohol by Grant negatively impacted his performance in the field."

Drunk in the saddle

That's not the case for Confederate Gen. Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, a Tennessean who was so drunk on Dec. 31, 1862, Ogden said, "he actually fell out of the saddle at one point" at what Southerners called the Battle of Murfreesboro and Northerners call the Battle of Stones River.

Cheatham and Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg didn't see eye-to-eye on things, Ogden said, and "that incident only further reduced Bragg's opinion of him."

Cheatham survived the war, and later earned a whiskey-related honor.

"There was an early Jack Daniel's bottle with a portrait of Cheatham on it," Ogden said.

So Jack Daniel's might qualify as a Southern sympathizer's counterpart to Old Crow, though the Jack Daniel Distillery wasn't formally founded until 1866, after the Civil War ended.

Rebel Yell, a bourbon that was created to "personify the South" and has a label showing a Rebel soldier charging off to battle, wasn't created until 1936.

Chattanooga whiskey honors lee

Chattanooga had its own brand, Deep Spring Whiskey, that was launched in 1866, the same year as Jack Daniel's. It had advertising that paid homage to the Confederacy.

A Deep Spring Whiskey poster shows Gen. Robert E. Lee on horseback, surrounded by soldiers carrying aloft Confederate flags. In the foreground, a female battlefield nurse holds a hefty glass of whiskey to the lips of a wounded Rebel soldier. A case of Deep Spring Whiskey is shown near his bandaged leg.

"Deep Spring distillery was on the south end of what today is the Market Street Bridge," said Joe Ledbetter, co-founder of the modern-day Chattanooga Whiskey Co., which has sold some 3,000 cases of Chattanooga-branded whiskey since starting up six months ago. The whiskey is distilled in Indiana, because distilleries aren't allowed in Chattanooga, but Ledbetter's business is campaigning to repeal the law prohibiting distilleries here.

Civil War re-enactors who wanted to get their whiskey right wouldn't want to buy a bottle off the shelf, anyway, because that's not how Civil War soldiers drank, said Michael Veach, Associate Curator for Special Collections at the Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Ky.

"The major package for selling whiskey was the barrel. You would take your flask or your jug to the liquor store or saloon and get it filled there," said Veach, who's authored a book due out in February: "Kentucky Bourbon Whiskey an American Heritage."

"It wasn't bottled by the distiller," Veach said. "Bottles were very expensive at that time, because they had to be hand-blown."

Whiskey Part of U.S. history

While discouraged by the Army brass, soldiers did whatever they could to get their hands on booze.

"Alcohol was an extremely pervasive part of United States culture," Ogden said.

The South prohibited bourbon distilling during the war, Veach said, partly because corn was needed to feed soldiers.

"The other big thing was, they wanted the copper for the stills, so they could turn that copper into cannons," he said.

The North kept whiskeymaking going and taxed it, Veach said.

Whiskey, and the tax on it, is intertwined with American history, he said.

"It paid for the Revolutionary War debts," Veach said.

President Thomas Jefferson repealed the whiskey tax in 1802, but it was reinstated from 1814-1817 to fund the War of 1812. The tax on whiskey was reinstated in 1861 and has remained in place since then, Veach said, accounting at times for between 50 percent and 70 percent of the federal budget.

Contact staff writer Tim Omarzu at or 423-757-6651.

04/16/2017 11:58 AM

Topic :   Ironically, this Confederate general was against slavery

The link is at .

Ironically, this Confederate general was against slavery

04/09/2017 11:59 AM

Re :   The Bataan Death March

Roy Exum is a well known sports writer in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

New Mexico has a Bataan Death March every year, to honor the victims. This year's drew a record crowd.

Japanese War Crimes is at .This Chinese website documents the massacres, committed by Japan, against Asia and Allied troops. The Japanese Emperor was the Asian Hitler.

03/24/2017 11:35 PM

Topic :   The Bataan Death March

It is at .May they rest in God's eternal peace and love.

Roy Exum: Bataan’s 75th Anniversary

Monday, March 20, 2017 - by Roy Exum
Roy Exum
Roy Exum

Just shy of 50 years ago, I was evermore a yearling sports writer and Bear Bryant at Alabama was among the first to help me appear a whole lot better than I was. When I would visit Tuscaloosa, Coach Bryant would let me hang around and it wasn’t long before I befriended Bert Bank. Bert, who came home after World War II and got his law degree at the university, was a longtime state legislator but what you need to know he was the genius who originated the Alabama Football Network.

Aw, he did a whole lot more … once he hired a black disc jockey for one of his radio stations in the early ‘60s, a gaggle of white advertisers showed up and threatened to pull their advertising. Bert promptly told them that if they did, he would publish each of their names in the Tuscaloosa News. Further, they would never be allowed on the Crimson Tide network again. Well, that took care of that, but Bert Bank was bigger than the state of Texas and we got to be marvelous friends in a hurry. How do you think Alabama became the first state in the Union to make burning a flag a felony?!

One night everybody stayed up a little late and it slipped that Bert had survived the Bataan Death March, easily one of the biggest atrocities in the history of mankind. This past weekend almost 8,000 patriots gathered in Las Cruces, New Mexico to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the 60-to-70-mile march where an estimated 650 American soldiers and 18,000 Filipino allies were viciously beaten, bayonetted and shot to death during the four-day march.

This weekend’s tribute to the survivors was the biggest ever. Over 25,000 pounds of food was donated to the state’s homeless as “entry fee” to run or walk the 8.2 mile “march.” It is held in New Mexico because 829 of the state’s “sons” either died in the Death March, or the prisoner of war camps during the next 33 months. The memorial is held at the White Sands Missile Range and is huge, now lasting three days.

This biggest roar every year comes when legendary Clemson professor emeritus Ben Skardon appears and once again he made the entire march, this four months shy of his 100th birthday. He made it “the whole way” back in 1942 but his two best friends from Clemson died in the Philippines. Dr. Skardon has “marched” in the last 10 New Mexico events and is always the last to cross the starting line and the last to cross the finish line, where at least 5,000 wait until he arrives and the cannons bellow.

Colonel Skardon walked seven miles on his own this year but thanked an Army medic and an ROTC cadet for their “gentle assist” in the last mile. An English professor at Clemson for years, he said he felt like “a wet wash rag with all the water at one end.”

And, yes, he plans to return to Las Cruces next year “to remember the real heroes.” He says, “This is now my pilgrimage … Coming here is like going to Mecca; it’s a shrine. I learned how easy it is to die when you lose the will to live.”

The enormity of the Bataan Death March defies belief. Imagine 80,000 POWs being marched in insufferable heat (100+) and lethal humidity. If one quit walking, fell, or dared drink muddy water along the way, death-by-bayonet was instant. The prisoners were constantly clubbed, tortured, and fed no more than a handful or two of rice in the horrific ordeal.

Once they got to the POW camp, 60,000 were placed in a POW camp where hundreds died every day. Hunger, malnutrition, malaria and Beri-Beri and those “with crushed spirit” were the biggest killers and, if a POW tried to escape, the entire work detail was shot. Blatant murder was committed by the Japanese every day.

Most Bataan survivors refused to ever talk about the savagery. The march started before the America-Filipino troops surrendered and, by early April, 1942, it included a train ride at the end where men were literally sardined into ancient box cars – over 100 in each -- and hundreds suffocated on the barbaric train. During the march, some U.S. troops did escape but it wasn’t until January of 1944 that the United States released news of the gruesome monstrosity to the American public.

General George Marshall included this in his formal announcement. “These brutal reprisals upon helpless victims evidence the shallow advance from savagery which the Japanese people have made. [...] We serve notice upon the Japanese military and political leaders as well as the Japanese people that the future of the Japanese race itself, depends entirely and irrevocably upon their capacity to progress beyond their aboriginal barbaric instincts.”

It is still widely believed the “aboriginal barbaric instincts” were among the primary deciding factors behind the bombing of Hiroshima. Everybody talks about Pearl Harbor as the focal point but the rage and fury the Bataan Death March caused among our military leaders was unprecedented during the war.

By Christmas of 1944, Bert was hanging on by a thread with 512 other prisoners at the Cabanatuan Prisoner of War Camp. Already 2,656 Americans had died when a daring raid was being plotted by a legendary Tennessean that marvelously recounted the book and the movie, “Ghost Soldiers.”

Also, called “The Great Raid,” there is a thrilling side story. Shelbyville native Austin Shofner, who played football and wrested at Tennessee, went into the Marines shortly after he graduated from UT in 1937. “Shifty,” as he was called from his days in Neyland Stadium, was a captain at Corregidor when his unit was captured. Almost immediately, he and nine other GIs made the only successful escape from a Japanese prison camp during the entire war.

It gets better. Shofner and the others joined up with some Filipino guerrillas and soon ‘Shifty’ headed all guerrilla activities for General Douglas MacArthur. Only later would he make a second daring escape on a submarine and, when he got to Australia, his recognizance and his heroics were so notable General MacArthur presented him with the Distinguished Service Cross. He later was awarded the Legion of Merit after Okinawa but – get this – it was ‘Shifty’ who actually drew the plans for “The Great Raid” from memory that freed the POWs and Bert Bank.

The brilliant Shofner commanded the 6th Marines and retired as a Brigadier General in 1959. Undoubtedly one of the greatest heroes in Tennessee’s lore, his sons and grandsons have attended McCallie School. The general, heralded by the Tennessee legislature, died in 1999 at age 83 and is buried in Shelbyville.

The Raid was a stunning success. When an Army Ranger lifted Bert Bank, he said he would never be able to describe such emotion but what came from his mouth he will never forget. “Three words … Freedom! Freedom! Freedom!” It was from that camp that he and 512 other prisoners were liberated by the 6th Rangers on January 30, 1945.

Bert Banks was totally blind when he was rescued – this due to 33 months of disease and all other horrors. He weighed 90 pounds and spent the next two years in an Army Hospital in Pennsylvania. His sight miraculously returned yet his spirit never wavered. “Let’s get this straight,” he once told noted sports guru Paul Feinbaum in an Alabama press box. “I’m no hero. Not at all. Those men are still in the Philippines.”

For the remainder of his life, Bert was a tireless advocate for veterans. And how do you think Alabama became the first state in the Union to make burning a flag a felony?! When Bank died on June 23, 2002 at age 94, his obituary included, “I bear no bitterness or rancor. It was a different time and the world has changed. I hope there will come a day when all the people in the world will live in peace and happiness."

* * *

Just so you will know, the Japanese formally surrendered to the United States on Sept. 2, 1945, and during the very same month Japanese General Masaharu Homma was arrested. The POW commandant was indicted for war crimes committed during the Bataan Death March and the trial didn’t last long. On February 26, 1946, he was sentenced to death by firing squad. He was executed on April 3, 1946, outside Manila.

Other Japanese Generals Hideki Tojo (later Prime Minister), Kenji Doihara, Seishiro Itagaki, Heitaro Kimura, Iwane Matsui, and Akira Muto, along with Baron Koki Hirota, were found also guilty and were each hanged by their necks until dead at Sugamo Prison in Ikebukuro, Japan, on December 23, 1948.

The Bataan Death March must never be forgotten nor the many heroes therein.

03/24/2017 11:32 PM

Topic :   What interested Isaac Newton more than science?

God bless him. It is at .

What interested Isaac Newton more than science?

Posted By Bill Federer On In American Minute

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton was born in 1642, the same year Galileo died. His mother was widowed twice, resulting in him being raised by his grandmother. He was sent off to grammar school and later went to Trinity College, Cambridge, 1661.

Sir Isaac Newton became a mathematician and a natural philosopher, discovering the laws of universal gravitation and formulating the three laws of motion, which aided in advancement of the discipline of dynamics. Newton was a discoverer of calculus and helped develop it into a comprehensive branch of mathematics. During the Plague of 1665-66, Newton moved to Woolsthorp, Lincolnshire.

He was honored to occupy the Lucasian Chair of Mathematics, 1669, and was elected Fellow of the Royal Society, 1672. Newton was given the position of Master of the Mint, 1699, and in 1701, entered Parliament. He constructed one of the first practical reflecting telescope. Using a prism, Newton demonstrated that a beam of light contained all the colors of the rainbow. He laid the foundation for the great law of energy conservation and developed the particle theory of light propagation. In 1703, Sir Issac Newton became the president of the Royal Society, and served in that position until his death.

Newton wrote one of the most important scientific books ever, Principia, 1687, in which he stated: “This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being. … All variety of created objects which represent order and life in the universe could happen only by the willful reasoning of its original Creator, whom I call the ‘Lord God.’ … This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of His dominion He is wont to be called ‘Lord God.’ … The supreme God exists necessarily, and by the same necessity He exists always and everywhere.”

Newton wrote in “Principia,” 1687: “From His true dominion it follows that the true God is a living, intelligent and powerful Being; and from His other perfections, that He is supreme, or most perfect. He is eternal and infinite, omnipotent and omniscient; that is, His duration reaches from eternity to eternity; His presence from infinity to infinity; He governs all things, and knows all things that are or can be done.”

Newton was cited in “Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton” by Sir David Brewster (Edinburgh, Thomas Constable and Co., 1855, Vol. II, 354): “God made and governs the world invisibly, and has commanded us to love and worship him, and no other God; to honor our parents and masters, and love our neighbors as ourselves; and to be temperate, just, and peaceable, and to be merciful even to brute beasts. And by the same power by which he gave life at first to every species of animals, he is able to revive the dead, and has revived Jesus Christ our Redeemer, who has gone into the heavens to receive a kingdom, and prepare a place for us, and is next in dignity to God, and may be worshiped as the Lamb of God, and has sent the Holy Ghost to comfort us in his absence, and will at length return and reign over us.”

Sir Isaac Newton wrote in “Optics,” 1704: “God in the beginning formed matter in solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, movable particles, of such sizes and figures, and with such other properties, and in such proportion to space, as most conduced to the end for which he formed them.”

Sir Isaac Newton devoted more time to the study of Scripture than to science (as cited in Tiner 1975): “I have a fundamental belief in the Bible as the Word of God, written by those who were inspired. I study the Bible daily.”

Sir Isaac Newton stated: “We account the Scriptures of God to be the most sublime philosophy. I find more sure marks of authenticity in the Bible than in any profane history whatsoever. … Worshiping God and the Lamb in the temple: God, for his benefaction in creating all things, and the Lamb, for his benefaction in redeeming us with his blood.”

Captivated by Bible prophecy, Sir Isaac Newton wrote “Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John” (published in 1733), in which he stated: “Daniel was in the greatest credit amongst the Jews, till the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian. And to reject his prophecies, is to reject the Christian religion. For this religion is founded upon his prophecy concerning the Messiah.”

He concluded his introductory chapter: “Daniel is most distinct in order of time, and easiest to be understood, and therefore in those things which relate to the last times, he must be made the key to the rest.”

In his preface to “The Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse” (published 1733), Sir Isaac Newton quoted a letter to Richard Bentley, dated Dec. 10, 1692: “When I wrote my treatise about our System I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity and nothing can rejoice me more than to find it useful for that purpose.”

Sir Isaac Newton wrote in “Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John” (published 1733): “The Book of Revelation exhibits to us the same peculiarities as that of Nature. … The history of the Fall of Man – of the introduction of moral and physical evil, the prediction of the Messiah, the actual advent of our Savior, His instructions, His miracles, His death, His resurrection, and the subsequent propagation of His religion by the unlettered fishermen of Galilee, are each a stumbling-block to the wisdom of this world. … But through the system of revealed truth which this Book contains is, like that of the universe, concealed from common observation, yet the labors of the centuries have established its Divine origin, and developed in all its order and beauty the great plan of human restoration.”

In “Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John” (published 1733), Sir Isaac Newton wrote: “The folly of Interpreters has been, to foretell times and things, by this Prophecy, as if God designed to make them Prophets. By this rashness they have not only exposed themselves, but brought the Prophecy also into contempt. The design of God was much otherwise. He gave this and the Prophecies of the Old Testaments, not to gratify men’s curiosities by enabling them to foreknow things, but that after they were fulfilled they might be interpreted by the event; and his own Providence, not the Interpreters, be then manifested thereby to the world. For the event of things predicted many ages before, will then be a convincing argument that the world is governed by providence.”

In “Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John” (published 1733), Sir Isaac Newton wrote: “For the prophets and apostles have foretold that as Israel often revolted and brake the covenant, and upon repentance renewed it, so there should be a falling away among the Christians, soon after the days of the Apostles, and that in the latter days God would destroy the impenitent revolters, and make a new covenant with his people. And the giving ear to the prophets is a fundamental character of the true church. … For as the few and obscure Prophecies concerning Christ’s first coming were for setting up the Christian religion, which all nations have since corrupted, so the many and clear Prophecies, concerning the things to be done at Christ’s second coming, are not only for predicting but also for effecting a recovery and re-establishment of the long-lost truth, and setting up a kingdom wherein dwells righteousness. The event will prove the Apocalypse, and this Prophecy, thus proved and understood, will open the old Prophets and all together will make known the true religion, and establish it. … An angel must fly through the midst of heaven with the everlasting Gospel to preach to all nations, before Babylon falls, and the Son of man reaps his harvest.” (Revelation 14:6)

The “Encyclopedia of Philosophy” described Sir Isaac Newton: “Newton himself was a student of Old Testament prophecies and believed in the Scriptures as inerrant guides.”

In his book “Chronology,” Newton studied the sequence of historical events and inserted a geometric diagram of Solomon’s Temple, giving the lengths of the Temple in relation to the measurement of time. This was in accordance with the Renaissance view that the Temple was a microcosm of God’s creation embodying the order of the universe.

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Economist John Maynard Keynes purchased all of Newton’s known manuscripts and personal notes at auction. After studying them, John Maynard Keynes wrote of Newton: “He regarded the universe as a cryptogram set by the Almighty, just as he himself wrapped the discovery of calculus in a cryptogram. … He looked on the whole universe and all that is in it as a riddle, as a secret which could be read by applying pure thought to certain evidence, certain mystic clues which God had laid about the world to allow a sort of philosopher’s treasure hunt. …”

Regarding the Bible, Newton wrote: “The system of revealed truth which this Book contains is like that of the universe, concealed from common observation yet the labors of the centuries have established its Divine origin.”

Newton (as cited in Tiner 1975): “Atheism is so senseless. When I look at the solar system, I see the earth at the right distance from the sun to receive the proper amounts of heat and light. This did not happen by chance.”

Newton was cited by Sir David Brewster in “Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton” (Edinburgh, Thomas Constable and Co., 1855, Vol. II, p. 347-348): “Opposite to godliness is atheism in profession, and idolatry in practice. Atheism is so senseless and odious to mankind, that it never had many professors. Can it be by accident that all birds, beasts, and men have their right side and left side alike shaped, (except in their bowels); and just two eyes, and no more, on either side of the face; and just two ears on either side of the head; and a nose with two holes; and either two forelegs, or two wings, or two arms on the shoulders, and two legs on the hips, and no more?

“Whence arises this uniformity in all their outward shapes but from the counsel and contrivance of an Author? Whence is it that the eyes of all sorts of living creatures are transparent to the very bottom, and the only transparent members in the body, having on the outside a hard transparent skin, and within transparent humors, with a crystalline lens in the middle, and a pupil before the lens, all of them so finely shaped and fitted for vision, that no artist can mend them? Did blind chance know that there was light, and what was its refraction, and fit the eyes of all creatures, after the most curious manner, to make use of it?

“These, and suchlike considerations, always have, and ever will prevail with mankind, to believe that there is a Being who made all things, and has all things in his power, and who is therefore to be feared. We are, therefore, to acknowledge one God, infinite, eternal, omnipresent, omniscient, omnipotent, the Creator of all things, most wise, most just, most good, most holy. We must love him, fear him, honor him, trust in him, pray to him, give him thanks, praise him, hallow his name, obey his commandments.”

Sir Isaac Newton stated: “There is one God, the Father, ever-living, omnipresent, omniscient, almighty, the Maker of heaven and earth, and one Mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus. … To us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by Him. That is, we are to worship the Father alone as God Almighty, and Jesus alone as the Lord, the Messiah, the Great King, the Lamb of God who was slain, and hath redeemed us with His blood, and made us kings and priests.”

Sir Isaac Newton died March 20, 1727. Newton stated (as cited in “The Religion of Sir Isaac Newton,” Frank E. Manuel, editor, London, Oxford University Press, 1974, p. 112): “And when you are convinced, be not ashamed to profess the truth. For otherwise you may become a stumbling block to others, and inherit the lot of those Rulers of the Jews who believed in Christ, but yet were afraid to confess him lest they should be put out of the Synagogue. Wherefore, when you are convinced, be not ashamed of the truth, but profess it openly and endeavor to convince your Brother also that you may inherit at the resurrection the promise made in Daniel 12:3, that ‘they who turn many to righteousness shall shine as the stars for ever and ever.’ And rejoice if you are counted worthy to suffer in your reputation or any other way for the sake of the Gospel, for then, ‘great is thy reward’!”

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03/20/2017 8:33 PM

Topic :   A brief history of slavery

The link is at .

A brief history of slavery

By Bill Federer

There are more slaves today than at any time in human history, reported Benjamin Skinner, a fellow at the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at Harvard Kennedy School of Government. An estimated 27 million people in the world are forced to work, held through fraud, under threat of violence, for no pay beyond subsistence, in forced marriages, in sex-trafficking and prostitution.

Though mostly illegal and called by different names, slavery nevertheless exists today in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Southeast Asia, Romania, Sudan, Haiti, Brazil, Latin America, and even in the United States.

It was reported in Time magazine, Jan. 18, 2010: “Despite more than a dozen international conventions banning slavery in the past 150 years, there are more slaves today than at any point in human history.”

Ancient cultures made slaves of those captured during wars in Babylon, Persia, Greece, China, India, Africa, and Rome. Israelites were slaves in Egypt for four hundred years. Julius Caesar conquered in Gaul and brought so many captured “slavic” peoples into to Rome that the term “slav” took the connotation of permanent servant – “slave.” Over half of Rome’s population were slaves.

Another form of slavery was generational indebtedness, spread by Roman Emperor Diocletian. The Roman economy was so bad that people who were unable to pay their mortgages would abandon their properties, renounce their Roman citizenship, and go off to live with the barbarians. Diocletian made it a law that people could never run away from their debts, tying them and their children to the land in perpetuity, creating the feudal system.

When Muslims conquered areas of Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Greece and the Mediterranean, over a million Europeans were carried off into Islamic slavery. Medieval Catholic religious orders of Trinitarians or Mathurins would collect donations to ransom people from Muslim slavery.

Muslim raiders enslaved an estimated 180 million Africans over its 1,400 year expansion. There has never been an abolitionist movement in Islam, as Mohammed himself owned slaves.

In pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire had a system of mandatory public service known as mita, similar to the Aztec’s tlacotin. When Spain conquered the New World in the early 1500’s, conquistadors deposed Indian government leaders and ruled in their stead. In the Inca Empire, where Indian populations had been trained to obey government orders, they willingly obeyed their new Spanish leaders, even though it often meant dying in forced labor such as in the Potosi silver mines.

Spaniards set up a system called encomienda or repartimiento, which was similar to feudal France’s Corvée “unfree labour.” Priests like Bartolomé de las Casas and the Franciscan Friars, together with Papal Bulls, ended the enslavement of native Americans. Those wanting slaves to replace the freed Indians purchased Africans from the Muslim slave markets.

Slavery began in Cuba earlier and lasted longer than most anywhere in the Americas. A notorious trade triangle developed with Havana, Cuba, at its center: Slaves from Africa to sugar from the Caribbean to rum in England.

In North America, Christian missionaries and movements, especially Quakers, Moravians, and Methodists, were a voice of conscience against slavery.

King James I, followed by Charles I and Oliver Cromwell, sold over 500,000 Irish Catholics into slavery throughout the 1600s onto plantations in the West Indies Islands of Antigua, Montserrat, Jamaica, Barbados, as well as Virginia and New England. Many poor Europeans sold themselves as “indentured servants,” a temporary slavery for seven years, in exchange for transportation to America.

During the years 1714-1756, persecution and oppression of the Irish grew so intense that thousands sought to escape British control by selling themselves as “indentured slaves” in exchanged for passage to the New World, usually Pennsylvania, hoping to take advantage of William Penn’s promise of toleration.

Historian Will Durant wrote in “The Story of Civilization”: “The Irish scene was one of the most shameful in history.”

Some North American Indians were sold into slavery in the West Indies. The first African slaves were brought to North America on a Dutch ship to Virginia in 1619. Haiti had several slave revolts against the French government. The fear the revolts would spread were a factor in Napoleon selling the Louisiana Territory

Importation of slaves to the United States ended in 1807, but in 1839, an international incident occurred.

Discover more of Bill Federer’s eye-opening books and videos in the WND Superstore!

A Portuguese ship from Sierra Leone sold 53 slaves to Spanish planters on the Cuban ship Amistad. On July 1, 1839, the African slaves broke free of their shackles and seized control of the ship, demanding to be sailed back to Africa. The captain misdirected the ship, sailing slowly east during the day, but quickly west at night, landing at Long Island, New York, where the slaves were arrested.

The Amistad case went to the Supreme Court. Former President John Quincy Adams, now 74 years old, defended the jailed Africans. Adams stated, “By the blessing of God, I will argue the case before the Supreme Court.”

He wrote in his journal, Oct. 1840: “I implore the mercy of God to control my temper, to enlighten my soul, and to give me utterance, that I may prove myself in every respect equal to the task.” Francis Scott Key offered John Quincy Adams legal advice.

Adams shook hands with Africans Cinque and Grabeau, saying: “God willing, we will make you free.”

John Quincy Adams, known as “Old Man Eloquent,” argued in court: “The moment you come to the Declaration of Independence, that every man has a right to life and liberty, an inalienable right, this case is decided. I ask nothing more in behalf of these unfortunate men than this Declaration.”

Against all odds, John Quincy Adams won freedom for the Africans. President James Buchanan wrote Dec. 19, 1859: “When a market for African slaves shall no longer be furnished in Cuba … Christianity and civilization may gradually penetrate the existing gloom.”

After the Civil War was fought in the United States to end slavery, a revolt began in Cuba in 1868 by a farmer of Spanish descent crying out for racial equality, freedom of speech and freedom of association. Spain put down the Cuban revolt in the Ten Years War, killing thousands. A Spanish Royal decree finally ended slavery in Cuba in 1886.

In 1895, another rebellion began in Cuba and Spain sent 200,000 soldiers to put it down. Thousands were put into concentration camps where they suffered from starvation, disease and exposure. Yellow Press journalism excited the American public, who demanded President William McKinley intervene.

The U.S.S. Maine was sent to Havana, and on Feb. 15, 1898, it blew up in the harbor under suspicious conditions, beginning the Spanish-American War.

President McKinley approved the Resolution of Congress: “Whereas the abhorrent conditions which have existed for more than three years in the island of Cuba, so near our own borders, have shocked the moral sense of the people of the United States, have been a disgrace to Christian civilization, culminating, as they have, in the destruction of a United States battle ship, with 266 of its officers and crew, while on a friendly visit in the harbor of Havana, and cannot longer be endured. … Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives … that the people of the island of Cuba are and of right ought to be free.”

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02/15/2017 12:46 PM

Topic :   The Dirty Secrets of Socialism (Or, The Purpose of Political Correctness)

It is at .


The Dirty Secrets of Socialism

(Or, The Purpose of Political Correctness)


December 31, 2016

01/01/2017 9:05 PM

Topic :   What happened on Christmas Day through history?

It is at .

What happened on Christmas Day through history?

12/25/2016 5:38 PM

Topic :   Bet you don't know how North Pole got tied to Santa

The link is at .Merry Christmas and Happy New Year's, everyone! Best wishes for the future!


Bet you don't know how North Pole got tied to Santa

Bill Federer recounts brief history of popular Christmas traditions, carols

Journey to Bethlehem by Joseph Brickey

Seeking UN sanctions against Iran, Dec. 21, 1979, President Jimmy Carter stated in a speech: “Henry Longfellow wrote a Christmas carol in a time of crisis, the ‘War Between the States,’ in 1864. Two verses of that carol (“I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day”) particularly express my thoughts and prayers and, I’m sure, those of our Nation in this time of challenge. … I would like to quote from that poem:

‘And in despair I bowed my head.
There is no peace on earth, I said.
For hate is strong and mocks the song
of peace on earth, good will to men.

Then pealed the bells, more loud and deep,
God is not dead, nor does he sleep.
The wrong shall fail, the right prevail,
With peace on earth, good will to men.'”

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was a professor at Harvard, where he taught a student named Phillips Brooks. Phillips Brooks, born Dec. 13, 1835, became the Episcopal bishop of Massachusetts.

While on a trip to the Holy Land in 1865, Phillips Brooks wrote: “After an early dinner, we took our horses and rode to Bethlehem. … It was only about two hours when we came to the town, situated on an eastern ridge of a range of hills, surrounded by its terraced gardens. It is a good-looking town, better built than any other we have seen in Palestine. … Before dark, we rode out of town to the field where they say the shepherds saw the star. It is a fenced piece of ground with a cave in it (all the Holy Places are caves here), in which, strangely enough, they put the shepherds. … As we passed, the shepherds were still ‘keeping watch over their flocks or leading them home to fold.'”

Phillips Brooks returned to Massachusetts in September of 1866 and wrote the carol, “O Little Town of Bethlehem”:

O little town of Bethlehem!
How still we see thee lie;
Above thy deep and dreamless sleep,
The silent stars go by;

Yet in thy dark streets shineth,
The everlasting Light;
The hopes and fears
of all the years,
Are met in thee tonight.

“Go, Tell It on the Mountain” is one of the most popular Negro spirituals. It was first published in 1865 in a collection complied by John Wesley Work, Jr.

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It was recorded by notable singers, including Mahalia Jackson, who once stated: “I sing God’s music because it makes me feel free. … It gives me hope. With the blues, when you finish, you still have the blues.”

Go, tell it on the mountain,
Over the hills and everywhere;
Go, tell it on the mountain,
That Jesus Christ is born.

While shepherds kept their watching
o’er silent flocks by night,
Behold, throughout the heavens
There shone a holy light.

Go, tell it on the mountain,
Over the hills and everywhere;
Go, tell it on the mountain,
That Jesus Christ is born.

The shepherds feared and trembled,
When lo! above the earth,
Rang out the angels chorus
That hailed our Savior’s birth.

Go, tell it on the mountain,
Over the hills and everywhere;
Go, tell it on the mountain,
That Jesus Christ is born.

Down in a lowly manger
The humble Christ was born
And God sent us salvation
That blessed Christmas morn.

In 1865, William Chatterton Dix wrote the Christmas carol, “What Child Is This”:

What child is this, who, laid to rest
On Mary’s lap, is sleeping?
Whom angels greet with anthems sweet,
While shepherds watch are keeping? (Chorus)

This, this is Christ the King,
Whom shepherds guard and angels sing:
Haste, haste to bring him laud,
The Babe, the Son of Mary!

Why lies he in such mean estate
Where ox and ass are feeding?
Good Christian, fear for sinners here,
The silent Word is pleading. (Chorus)

So bring Him incense, gold, and myrrh,
Come peasant king to own Him,
The King of kings, salvation brings,
Let loving hearts enthrone Him.

Raise, raise the song on high,
The Virgin sings her lullaby:
Joy, joy, for Christ is born,
The Babe, the Son of Mary!

In 1885, “Away in a Manger” was published in a Lutheran Sunday school book. It was edited in 1892 by Charles H. Gabriel and set to music in 1895 by William J. Kirkpatrick:

Away in a manger,
No crib for His bed
The little Lord Jesus
Laid down His sweet head
The stars in the bright sky
Looked down where He lay
The little Lord Jesus
Asleep on the hay

The cattle are lowing
The poor Baby wakes
But little Lord Jesus
No crying He makes
I love Thee, Lord Jesus
Look down from the sky
And stay by my side,
‘Til morning is nigh.

Be near me, Lord Jesus,
I ask Thee to stay
Close by me forever
And love me I pray
Bless all the dear children
In Thy tender care
And take us to heaven
To live with Thee there.

In 1829, the first U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, Joel R. Poinsett. He brought back a plant called “Flower of the Holy Night” (Flores de Nochebuena) which supposedly sprang up as a poor boy knelt to worship Jesus. Joel Poinsett planted it in South Carolina where it began to be called “Poinsettia.”

In 1856, President Franklin Pierce put up the first Christmas tree in the White House.

In 1862, Thomas Nast, illustrator for Harper’s Weekly Magazine known for the “Republican elephant” and “Democrat mule,” included a “North Pole” sign behind an illustration of St. Nicholas visiting Union troops.

It was meant as a political jab at the South to imply St. Nicholas was associated with the North. Prior to this, St. Nicholas came from heaven, the celestial city, the New Jerusalem.

Discover more of Bill Federer’s eye-opening books and videos in the WND Superstore!

In 1862, President and Mrs. Lincoln visited soldiers in Washington, D.C., hospitals on Christmas Day. On Dec. 26, 1864, Lincoln gave a Christmas reception at the White House.

On Christmas Day, 1868, President Andrew Johnson proclaimed full pardon and amnesty for all who had participated in secession, without reserve or exception.

Beginning with Alabama in 1836, all 50 states came to recognize Christmas Day as a legal holiday. In 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant signed a bill making Christmas Day a federal holiday. In 1893, Christmas Day was recognized as an official holiday in the U.S. states and territories.

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12/13/2016 3:48 PM

Topic :   First Thanksgiving in Chattanooga (Civil War)

It is at .Happy Thanksgiving, everyone!


First Thanksgiving in Chattanooga (Civil War)

Tuesday, November 22, 2016 - by Chuck Hamilton

By “first Thanksgiving Day”, no, I do not mean the harvest thanksgiving meal which the Separatist colonists of New Plymouth shared uncomfortably with their Wampanoag neighbors.  Nor do I mean any of the thanksgivings proclaimed on a one-time basis by a U.S. President after that.  In this case, the “First Thanksgiving Day” means the inaugural event of those that have taken place every third or fourth Thursday of November since.

At the height of the Civil War, in the aftermath of losses of Chancellorsville and Chickamauga as well as the horrific Union casualties at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed that the last Thursday of November would be a day of national thanksgiving every year.  Essentially, it was a public relations move to distract a war-weary population. 

The Confederacy held a similar observance on 21 August of that year for similar reasons.  In that case, the observance in Chattanooga was interrupted by the guns of John T. Wilder’s brigade on Stringer’s Ridge.

* * * * *

I first got interested in the battles the day after the big battles on 25 November when Becky Eaves, historian to East Brainerd and to Concord Baptist Church, told me about how her brothers used to gather up minie balls by the bucket-load to sell as fishing weights.  They gathered them from all over the farm which their parents had inherited from the Blackwell ancestors.  I became even more so after moving to Grays Drive and realizing the Army of Tennessee had probably retreated right through my front yard.

* * * * *

Little did Lincoln know when he made that proclamation on 3 October 1863 that on the day so designated, 26 November that year, the Confederate Army of Tennessee would be fleeing in desparation and somewhat disarray after its disastrous defeat on Missionary Ridge at the hands of the Union Army of the Cumberland.  According to reports in the Official Record of the War Between the States and letters from participating soldiers, there were several engagements fought during the retreat that day.

The day before, Hardee’s Corps of the Army of Tennessee had just been settling down to celebrate Patrick Cleburne’s victory at the “Battle of Tunnel Hill, Tn.” over William T. Sherman at at the northern end of the ridge, when the Confederate line on Missionary Ridge broke in the face of the charge by the Army of the Cumberland against its front and the sudden belated appearance Hooker’s corps from the Army of the Potomac at Ross’ Gap. 

Having saved the day, or so it thought, Cleburne’s Division now found itself assigned rearguard for the withdrawal to Chickmauga Station after having fought in heavy battle from 9 am to 4:00 pm against a vastly superior force.  In fact, Hardee’s entire corps had remained intact and held its positions, withdrawing in good order starting at 7:45 pm beginning with Cheatham’s Division, then Walker’s Division, then Stevenson’s Division, and finally Cleburne’s Division.  Smith’s Brigade of Cleburne’s Division, which had born he brunt of the worst of the fighting, did not leave Tunnel Hill until 9:00 pm.

* * * * *

The first post-Missionary Ridge engagement occurred that evening, between forward elements of Philip Sheridan’s 2nd Division of the 4th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland and unknown elements of the Army of Tennessee, including artillery. 

After leaving the ridge, Sheridan’s division followed the trail over the ridge well past nightfall.  In that time, Bird’s Mill Road followed Talley Road until it veered north, then ran down what is now Old Mission Road (referring to the former Brainerd Mission).  At the point where the road ran over Talley Hill, Confederates from the rearguard had set up a number of cannon and a line of infantry, which slowed Sheridan’s pursuit enough that he and his division had to stop for the night at Bird’s Mill and the old mission.

* * * * *

Chickamauga Station, the depot of which stood across the road from the airport terminal, was the designated rendezvous point for the retreating forces after Gen. Braxton Bragg’s catastrophic loss at Missionary Ridge.  From there the next day, the Army of Tennessee began withdrawing in two columns ideally following two separate routes.  Maj. Gen. John Breckenridge commanded one column, with Walker’s Division (under Brig. Gen. States Rights Gist) as its rear guard, while Lt. Gen. William Hardee commanded the other, with Cleburne’s Division as its rear guard.  (Col. John W.) Grigsby’s Brigade of Kelly’s Division of (Maj. Gen. Joseph) Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps divided to protect the two rearguards. 

(Brig. Gen. Lucius) Polk’s Brigade of Cleburne’s Division and (Brig. Gen. George) Maney’s Brigade of Stevenson’s Division, temporarily detached to Cleburne’s Division, were detailed to destroy the vast commissary stores at the depot, but there was too much.  (Brig. Gen. Joseph) Lewis’ Orphan Brigade out of Kentucky, part of Breckenridge’s Division but also seconded to Cleburne, formed the rear of the rear guard, covering for the other two brigades.

* * * * *

The vanguard of the Union pursuit was Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis’ 2nd Division of the 12th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland.  Behind him came the 11th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. Oliver Howard (for whom Howard High School and Howard Elementary are named).  When he learned from scouts the troops of the Confederate reaguard were the Kentuckians of Lewis’ Brigade, Davis made his 1st Brigade under James D. Morgan, also Kentuckians, the forward element of his division.

The first encounter between the two opposing units of Kentuckians took place at a hill north of Chickamauga Station, the same which Polk’s Brigade of Cleburne’s Division had held the day before.  After a brief skirmish, the Confederate Kentuckians withdrew to Chickamauga Station, where soldiers of Maney’s and Gist’s Brigade were vainly attempt to burn everything while stuffing as much food as they could wherever they could.

When Morgan’s Brigade reached the outskirts of Chickamauga around high noon, the Orphan Brigade covered the withdrawal of their in the second encounter of the day.  Once Maney’s and Gist’s Brigades were gone, the Orphans withdrew to Milliken Ridge.

On two knobs on Milliken Ridge, Dupree Hill to the north and Stein Hill on the south, soldiers of Cleburne’s Division had that summer built two redoubts overlooking the station.  Here, the Orphans made their third stand against their fellow Kentuckians, then withdrew.

The fourth and final stand of the Orphan Brigade that day took place in Hickory Valley, which at that point ran between Milliken Ridge on the west and Concord Ridge to the east.  In this, the Orphans held postions on the ridgeside while Morgan’s troops dug in along Hickory Creek, which the Union commanders dubbed Shepherd’s Run, after Margaret Shepherd, who came out from Altamede (the Shepherd mansion patterned after James Vann’s Diamond Hill) to scold the Union soldiers for ruining her flowerbeds.  When the Orphans withdrew again, probably along Igou Road, Davis gave the soldiers of Morgan’s Brigade a break.

* * * * *

While this was going on, Howard moved his corps to the left of Davis’ division to sweep wide and prevent straggling Confederates from escaping.  To cover his own left flank, Howard used the 55th Ohio Volunteers (2nd Brigade, 2nd Division) under Capt. Charles B. Gambee.  Gambee and his troops encountered the Orphan Brigade’s 4th Kentucky Infantry under Col. Thomas Thompson at Tyner’s Station.  After a brief encounter from which their opponents swiftly withdrew, the 55th Ohio captured a 1st lieutenant, four privates, and two teamsters.  Howard then moved the corps south down the valley roughly along what’s now known as Silverdale and Gunbarrel Roads.

* * * * *

The largest engagement of the day, and one which could definitely be called a proper battle, due to the number of soldiers involved, took place in Concord, or East Brainerd proper.  From the descriptions in various letters and reports of the commanders, this battle can only have taken place east of Concord Ridge, near Mackey Branch.  Sam Watkins of “Co. Aytch” in Maney’s Brigade refers to the stream as Cat Creek while the Union officers called it Shepherd’s Run under the mistaken impression or memory it was the same as Hickory Creek. 

Several references to the encounter’s proximity to Graysville, Georgia (“about a mile”) leave no other option.  The Union Army Cyclopedia of Battles, in fact, gives its location as Graysville, but it was clearly a bit north of there.

Facing their opponents across the creek and fields from a stretch of woods in hastily built ifle pits and breastworks, Maney’s Brigade lined up in what they thought was going to be a suicidal last stand facing Davis’ division.  At the last moment before the battle, units of Grigsby’s Brigade (its three Kentucky regiments) appeared, and settled down to fight alongside Maney’s troops dismounted.  They were supported by one of the Mississippi field artillery units, most likely (by process of elimination) Stanford’s Mississippi Battery.

Seeing the opposition, Davis sent forward his 2nd and 3rd Brigades under Brig. Gen. John Beatty and Col. Daniel McCook respectively.  Supporting them from Concord Ridge were guns from Battery I of the 2nd Illinois Light Artillery.  Davis kept Morgan’s Kentuckians in reserve.  After the engagement had begun, Howard’s 11th Corps arrived from the north.  Howard sent his 2nd Division under Brig. Gen. Adolph Steinwehr to Davis’ right and put his 3rd Division under Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz in reserve.

The fight lasted but an hour as darkness was falling, and at dusk the Confederates gratefully withdrew.  Brig. Gen. Maney was severely wounded in this encounter and remained out of action until returning to command a division under Hardee during the Atlanta Campaign.

* * * * *

While the above engagements were taking place, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker’s command, including the 12th Corps of the Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. Henry Slocum, the 14th Corps of the Army of the Cumberland under Maj. Gen. John Palmer (minus Davis’ division), and the 1st Division of the 15th Corps of the Army of the Tennessee under Brig. Gen. Peter Osterhaus, proceeded from Ross’ Gap toward Ringgold down the Old Federal Road hoping to cut off Bragg’s Confederates.  Destroyed bridges and flooded creeks caused serious delays.

While Hooker was stalled at Red House Ford while a bridge was built over the flooded West Chickamauga Creek, he sent cavalry across which encountered Liddell’s Brigade of Cleburne’s Division, commanded by Col. Daniel Govan, which easily turned them back.

When the road to Graysville divided from that to Ringgold, Palmer took his corps to the former while Hooker maintained his path to the latter.

Palmer’s vanguard was his 1st Division under Brig. Gen. Richard Johnson.  Johnson sent his 1st Brigade under Brig. Gen. William Carlin toward Graysville while his 2nd Brigade under Col. William Stoughton went toward Indian Springs, the area around the crossroads of the way to Graysville and the way to Ringgold.

In the dark of early evening, Carlin’s brigade stumbled into Gist’s Brigade, then attempting to cross Chickamauga River at Graysville.  Some fighting ensued, but in the dark no one was hit, and the Confederates were able to escape and ford the river upstream.

Meanwhile, Stoughton’s brigade surprised pickets from Stewart’s Division near the crossroads of the Lafayette and Ringgold roads, capturing some along with their guns, and causing the rest to flee in disarray.

As for Hooker’s column, Brig. Gen. John Geary’s 2nd Division of the 12th Corps of the Army of the Potomac encountered Breckenridge’s rearguard (i.e., Walker’s Division), including (Capt. T.B.) Ferguson’s South Carolina Battery, at Peavine Creek, and a skirmish ensued, resulting in some soldiers and artillery captured.

After crossing Peavine Creek and Chickamauga Swamp, Osterhaus’ division encountered what appeared to be a large body of Confederates encamped and entrenched atop what Geary calls the Pigeon Hills. The two generals formed their troops into lines-of-battle and commenced firing as they advanced.  By the time they reached the summit, the camp was deserted.

* * * * *

Related to the actions of these days was the raid of the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Cavalry Division attached to the Army of the Cumberland, then under Col. Eli Long.

On 24 November, Maj. Gen. George Thomas, commander of the Army of the Cumberland, dispatched Col. Long and his troops to raid and destroy along the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad. 

That day, as reported Lt. Col. Edward Kitchell of the 9th Illinois Mounted Infantry, the unit involved, troops burned two caissons and tore up the rails at several points near Tyner Station (Thomas reported up the chain that they had burned the station and tore up all the tracks).  Later in the day, they encountered a wagon train coming out of Ooltewahand destroyed it.

On 25 November, while the Battles of Tunnel Hill, Tn., and of Missionary Ridge were being fought to the west, Long and his brigade captured Cleveland, Tennessee. 

On 26 November, Long sent the 3rd Ohio Cavalry under Lt. Col. Charles Seidel to search and destroy along the railroad to the Hiwassee River, Maj. Thomas Patten and the 1st Ohio Cavalry to do the same along the railroad to Dalton, and Maj. George Dobb and the 4th Ohio Cavalry back toward Chattanooga for the same.

At Charleston, Seidel found troops of (Brig. Gen. John H.) Kelly’s Division of Wheeler’s Cavalry Corps, which he drove across the Hiwassee River into Calhoun.  There, Kelly’s command, including (Col. William) Wade’s Brigade and all of the division’s artillery, was firmly entrenched.  Knowing when to quit, Seidel withdrew to Cleveland.

* * * * *

The next day, 27 November, Cleburne’s Division held Taylor’s Gap at Ringgold, Georgia, against Hooker’s entire command, though the main units involved on the Union side were the divisions of Osterhaus and Geary.  While Cleburne and his troops kept Hooker’s men thus tied up, the rest of the Army of Tennessee retreated from Catoosa Station to Dalton.  Cleburne and his men later followed, stopping at Tunnel Hill. 

The same morning, Kelly attacked Seidel’s troops at Cleveland, driving out the federals, then withdrew to Dalton the very same day, to join the rest of the Army of Tennessee.

Chuck Hamilton

11/22/2016 12:24 PM

Topic :   Stuff you probably didn't know about Sam Houston

It is at .

Sam Houston

At age 16, after his father died, Sam Houston ran off to live with the Cherokee Indians on the Tennessee River. He was adopted by Chief Oolooteka and given the name “Raven.” Three years later, Sam Houston returned to Knox County, Tennessee, and opened a one-room schoolhouse – the first school built in the state. He joined the army and fought in the War of 1812.

After the Massacre of Fort Mims, where Red Stick Creek Indians, supplied with British guns, scalped over 500 men, women and children, the U.S. government sent in General Andrew Jackson. Sam Houston fought under General Jackson against the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend on March 27, 1814.

An arrow struck Sam Houston near his groin. He had the arrow removed, was bandaged, then returned to the fight. He was then struck again with bullets in his shoulder and arm. General Andrew Jackson took notice of Sam Houston and began mentoring him.

In 1818, Sam Houston, wearing Indian dress, led a delegation of Cherokee to Washington, D.C., to meet with President James Monroe. Sam Houston studied law under Judge James Trimble, passed the bar, and opened up a legal practice in Lebanon, Tennessee. Houston was appointed the local prosecutor and was given a command in the state militia. Sam Houston was elected to Congress in 1823, and became governor of Tennessee in 1827.

After a failed marriage, Sam Houston resigned and moved to the Arkansas Territory where he lived among the Cherokee Tribe. Understanding that Cherokee needed to be a “nation” in order for the U.S. government to honor a treaty, Sam Houston helped the Cherokee compose a constitution.

On Dec. 27, 1831, Houston was a passenger on a steamboat where he met French writer Alexis de Tocqueville who was traveling throughout the United States.

While visiting Washington, D.C., a politician slandered Houston’s character resulting in an altercation and trial. Francis Scott Key was Houston’s lawyer, and future President James K. Polk interceded for him, resulting in Houston getting off with a light reprimand and a fine of $500.

Rather than pay, Houston left town and traveled out west. He married a Cherokee wife, but she refused to follow him to the Mexican Territory of Tejas. In 1833, in Nacogdoches, Sam Houston was baptized into the Catholic faith, which was a requirement to own property in the Mexican Territory.

On his 43rd birthday, March 2, 1836, Sam Houston signed the Texas Declaration of Independence, which stated:

When a government has ceased to protect the lives, liberty, and property of the people … and … becomes an instrument in the hands of evil rulers for their oppression … it is a … sacred obligation to their posterity to abolish such government, and create another in its stead.

The Texas Declaration ended:

Conscious of the rectitude of our intentions, we fearlessly and confidently commit the issue to the decision of the Supreme Arbiter of the Destinies of Nations.

Sam Houston was made Commander-in-Chief to fight Santa Anna, culminating in the Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836. One report was that Sam Houston had three horses shot from under him.

Discover more of Bill Federer’s eye-opening books and videos in the WND Superstore!

James Monroe Hill wrote in a letter, Oct. 20, 1895 (“McArdle Notebooks – The Battle of San Jacinto,” Texas State Library and Archives): “As I passed down the flat lands I saw General Houston on a different horse. I afterward heard that it was the third one, two having been killed under him. I did not know then that he himself was wounded.”

A bullet had shattered Sam Houston’s ankle, yet he continued the fierce attack. In the 18 minute battle, 900 Texans had defeated 1,500 Mexicans.

Later that year, Sept. 4, 1836, President Andrew Jackson wrote to General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna: “Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 4th day of July last, which had been forwarded to me by General Samuel Houston. … If … Mexico should signify her willingness to avail herself of our good offices in bringing about the desirable result you have described, nothing could give me more pleasure than to devote my best services to it. To be instrumental in terminating the evils of civil war and in substituting in their stead the blessings of peace is a divine privilege. … Your letter, and that of General Samuel Houston, commander in chief of the Texan army, will be made the basis of an early interview with the Mexican minister at Washington. …

“In the meantime I hope Mexico and Texas, feeling that war is the greatest of calamities, will pause before another campaign is undertaken and can add to the number of those scenes of bloodshed which have already marked the progress of their contest and have given so much pain to their Christian friends throughout the world.”

On Oct. 22, 1836, General Sam Houston was sworn in as the first president of the Republic of Texas. In 1846, Sam Houston became the first U.S. Senator from Texas, and in 1859 he was elected governor. Sam Houston was the only person to have been “elected” the governor of two different states.

After receiving news that his Cherokee wife had died, Sam Houston married again in 1847. In 1840, at the age of 47, Sam Houston married 21-year-old Margaret Moffette Lea of Alabama, and together they had eight children.

With the help of Baptist pastor George Washington Baines, Sr., great-grandfather of Lyndon Baines Johnson, Sam Houston’s wife Margaret convinced him to be baptized as a Baptist in Little Rocky Creek on November 19, 1854.

Governor Sam Houston wanted to keep Texas out of the Civil War, stating: “I love Texas too well to bring civil strife and bloodshed upon her. To avert this calamity, I shall make no endeavor to maintain my authority as Chief Executive of this State, except by the peaceful exercise of my functions. …”

When he refused to join the Confederacy, he was removed from office on March 16, 1861.

President Lincoln, through Union Col. Frederick W. Lander, offered Sam Houston 50,000 Union troops to prevent Texas from joining the Confederacy. Houston refused, stating: “Allow me to most respectfully decline any such assistance of the United States government.”

When asked why he did not join the Confederacy, Houston told a crowd outside his Galveston hotel window, April 19, 1861: “Let me tell you what is coming. After the sacrifice of countless millions of treasure and hundreds of thousands of lives, you may win Southern independence if God be not against you, but I doubt it. I tell you that, while I believe with you in the doctrine of states rights, the North is determined to preserve this Union. They are not a fiery, impulsive people as you are, for they live in colder climates. But when they begin to move in a given direction, they move with the steady momentum and perseverance of a mighty avalanche; and what I fear is, they will overwhelm the South.”

The city of Houston, Texas, the fourth-largest city in the United States, is named for Sam Houston.

Addressing the Houston Ministerial Association, Democrat Presidential Candidate John F. Kennedy stated Sept. 12, 1960: “I believe in an America … where religious liberty is so indivisible that an act against one church is treated as an act against all. For, while this year it may be a Catholic against whom the finger of suspicion is pointed, in other years it has been, and may someday be again, a Jew – or a Quaker – or a Unitarian – or a Baptist. It was Virginia’s harassment of Baptist preachers … that led to Jefferson’s statute of religious freedom. … I believe in an America … where all men and all churches are treated as equal. … I would not look with favor upon a president working to subvert the First Amendment’s guarantees of religious liberty.”

Religious liberty has it roots in the Judeo-Christian belief that men are created equal in God’s image, as Franklin Roosevelt stated, Jan. 6, 1942: “We are inspired by a faith that goes back through all the years to the first chapter of the Book of Genesis: ‘God created man in His own image.'”

Religious liberty includes the concept of “freedom of conscience,” based on the concept that a God of love desires men and women to love Him back, “love the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, strength and mind,” but in order for love to be love it has to be voluntary and not forced submission, therefore the God of the Bible respects man’s freedom of conscience.

In Houston, Texas, Aug. 17, 1992, Ronald Reagan stated at the Republican National Convention: “Whether we come from poverty or wealth; whether we are Afro-American or Irish-American; Christian or Jewish, from big cities or small towns, we are all equal in the eyes of God. … May all of you as Americans never forget your heroic origins, never fail to seek divine guidance, and never lose your natural, God-given optimism. … My fellow Americans … God bless each and every one of you, and God bless this country we love.”

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10/23/2016 12:55 PM

Re :   Tattered flag

 It sounds like, you had a great trip.

09/05/2016 7:58 PM

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