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Topic :   SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGH: 2,000 planets detected outside Milky Way Galaxy

The link is at .

SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGH: 2,000 planets detected outside Milky Way Galaxy

THOUSANDS of planets have been detected outside of the Milky Way Galaxy for the first time in a landmark discovery by a group of esteemed astronomers.

Experts have long known that planets would not be confined to our galaxy, but this is the first time that a celestial body has been discovered outside of the Milky Way.

Researchers from the University of Oklahoma used microlensing – an astronomical phenomenon that allows scientists to use gravity from huge objects such as stars to peer hundreds of billions of lightyears into the universe – to detect the planets.

The scientists say they have detected up to 2,000 planets beyond the Milky Way, in a galaxy around 3.8 billion light years away from Earth and ranging in mass sizes from the moon to Jupiter.

University of Oklahoma researchers used NASA’s Chandra X-ray observatory and were even able to see a quasar – a large celestial object – up to six billion lightyears away.

Xinyu Dai, professor in the Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma College of Arts and Sciences, said: "We are very excited about this discovery. This is the first time anyone has discovered planets outside our galaxy.

"These small planets are the best candidate for the signature we observed in this study using the microlensing technique. 

“We analysed the high frequency of the signature by modelling the data to determine the mass.”

The team, which published its research in The Astrophysical Journal were not able to observe the planets directly, but confirmed their presence thanks to the way that gravity bends light around them.

University of Oklahoma postdoctoral researcher Eduardo Guerras said: "This is an example of how powerful the techniques of analysis of extragalactic microlensing can be. 

“This galaxy is located 3.8 billion light years away, and there is not the slightest chance of observing these planets directly, not even with the best telescope one can imagine in a science fiction scenario. 

"However, we are able to study them, unveil their presence and even have an idea of their masses. This is very cool science."

The gravitational microlensing technique was first predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. 

The technique has already been used to 53 exoplanets within the Milky Way.

02/06/2018 12:04 PM

Topic :   Happy Birthday, General Robert E. Lee

The link is at .

Happy Birthday, General Robert E. Lee

Wednesday, January 10, 2018
Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee

Sir Winston Churchill once said, "Lee was the noblest American who had ever lived and one of the greatest commanders known to the annals of war." 

Do young people still hear stories about George Washington, Booker T. Washington and Robert E. Lee? There was a time when schools and businesses closed in respect for the birthday of one of the South’s favorite sons -Robert E. Lee. 

Friday, January 19, 2018, is the 211th birthday of Robert E. Lee, whose memory still weighs dear in the hearts of many Southerners. Why is this man so honored in the South and respected in the North? Lee was even respected by the soldiers of Union blue who fought against him during the War Between the States. 

What is your community doing to remember this great man? 

During Robert E. Lee's 100th birthday in 1907, Charles Francis Adams, Jr., a former Union Commander and grandson of U.S. President John Quincy Adams, spoke in tribute to Robert E. Lee at Washington and Lee College's Lee Chapel in Lexington, Va. His speech was printed in both Northern and Southern newspapers and is said to had lifted Lee to a renewed respect among the American people. 

Dr. Edward C. Smith, respected African-American Professor of History at American University in Washington, D.C., told the audience in Atlanta during a 1995 Robert E. Lee birthday event, "Dr. Martin Luther King and Robert E. Lee were individuals worthy of emulation because they understood history."  

Booker T. Washington, America's great African-American educator, wrote in 1910, "The first white people in America, certainly the first in the South to exhibit their interest in the reaching of the Negro and saving his soul through the medium of the Sunday-school were Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson." 

American Presidents who have paid tribute to Lee include: Franklin D. Roosevelt, who spoke during the 1930s at a Robert E. Lee statue dedication in Dallas, Tx., Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower who proudly displayed a portrait of Lee in his presidential office. 

During a tour through the South in 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt told the aged Confederate veterans in Richmond, Va., "Here I greet you in the shadow of the statue of your commander, General Robert E. Lee. You and he left us memories which are part of the memories bequeathed to the entire nation by all the Americans who fought in the War Between the States." 

Georgia's famous Stone Mountain carving of Jefferson Davis, Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee was dedicated on May 9, 1970. William Holmes Borders, a noted African-American theologian and pastor of the Wheat Avenue Baptist Church, was asked to give the invocation. The many dignitaries attending this historic event included United States Vice President Spiro Agnew. Thousands of people bring their families each year to see this memorial to these three great Americans. 

Who was Robert E. Lee that has been praised by both black and white Americans and people from around the world? 

Robert E. Lee, a man whose military tactics have been studied worldwide, was an American soldier, educator, Christian gentlemen, husband and father. Lee said, "All the South has ever desired was that the Union, as established by our forefathers, should be preserved, and that the government, as originally organized, should be administered in purity and truth." 

Robert E. Lee was born on Jan. 19, 1807, at Stratford Hall in Westmoreland County, Va. The winter was cold and the fireplaces were little help for Robert's mother, Ann Hill (Carter) Lee, who suffered from a severe cold. 

Ann Lee named her son Robert Edward after two of her brothers. 

Robert E. Lee undoubtedly acquired his love of country from those who lived during the American Revolution. His father, Light Horse Harry was a hero of the American Revolution and served three terms as governor of Virginia and as a member of the United States House of Representatives. Two members of his family also signed the Declaration of Independence. 

Lee was educated at the schools of Alexandria, Va., and he received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1825. He graduated in 1829, second in his class and without a single demerit. 

Robert E. Lee's first assignment was to Cockspur Island, Ga., to supervise the construction of Fort Pulaski. 

While serving as 2nd Lieutenant of Engineers at Fort Monroe, Virginia, Lee wed Mary Ann Randolph Custis. Robert and Mary had grown up together, Mary was the daughter of George Washington Parke Custis, the Grandson of Martha Washington and adopted son of George Washington. 

Mary was an only child; therefore, she inherited Arlington House, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., where she and Robert E. Lee raised seven children, three boys and four girls. 

Army promotions were slow. In 1836, Lee was appointed to first lieutenant. In 1838, with the rank of captain, Robert E. Lee fought in the War with Mexico and was wounded at the Battle of Chapultepec. 

Lee was appointed superintendent of The United States Military Academy at West Point in 1852 and is considered one of the best superintendents in that institution's history. 

General Winfield Scott offered command of the Union Army to Robert E. Lee on April 17, 1861, but he refused. Lee said, "I cannot raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children." 

The Custis-Lee Mansion Arlington House would be occupied by Federals, who would turn the estate into a war cemetery.  

Lee served as adviser to President Jefferson Davis, and then on June 1, 1862, commanded the legendary Army of Northern Virginia. 

After four terrible years of death and destruction, General Robert E. Lee met General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.  

Lee was called Marse Robert, Uncle Robert and Marble Man. 

Lee was a man of honor, proud of his name and heritage. After the War Between the States, he was offered $50,000 for the use of his name. His reply was: "Sirs, my name is the heritage of my parents. It is all I have and it is not for sale." His refusal came at a time when he had nothing. 

In the fall of 1865, Lee was offered and accepted the presidency of troubled Washington College in Lexington, Va. The school was later renamed Washington and Lee College in his honor. 

Robert E. Lee died of a stroke at 9:30 on the morning of Oct. 12, 1870, at Washington College. His last words were "Strike the tent." 

The church bells rang as the sad news passed through Washington College, Virginia Military Institute and the town of Lexington Virginia. He is buried at Lee Chapel on the school grounds with his family and near his favorite horse, Traveller. 

On this his 211th birthday let us ponder the words he wrote to Annette Carter in 1868: "I grieve for posterity, for American Principles and American liberty." 

Lest We Forget!

Calvin E. Johnson, Jr.
Director of the Georgia Division Sons of Confederate Veterans Confederate History and Heritage Month Program 

01/11/2018 12:06 PM

Topic :   The Businessman and Bethlehem

 The link is at  .Merry Christmas and Happy New Year's, everyone! Best wishes for the future!

The Businessman and Bethlehem

12/25/2017 7:54 PM

Topic :   Happy Birthday General Watie

The link is at .


Born on December 12, 1806, near New Echota in the Cherokee Nation, East, in present Gordon County, Georgia, Stand Watie was given the Cherokee name Degadoga, meaning "he stands," at birth. He was a son of a full-blood Cherokee named Oo-wa-tie and his half-blood wife, Susanna Reese. When Oo-wa-tie was baptized into the Moravian Church as David Watie,... he renamed Degadoga Isaac S. Watie; Watie later dropped Isaac and combined his Cherokee and Christian names into Stand Watie.

Watie's older brother was named Buck, but he changed his name to Elias Boudinot. Watie's uncle was the Ridge, who became known as Major Ridge, and his cousin was John Ridge. Together they formed the powerful Ridge-Watie-Boudinot faction in Cherokee politics.

Watie received his formal education at the Moravian Mission School at Springplace, Georgia. He remained aloof from tribal politics until 1836 when he signed the Treaty of New Echota, by which in 1835 a group of Cherokees surrendered the ancient Cherokee homeland for a new domain in present Oklahoma. The Ridge-Watie-Boudinot faction migrated to the Cherokee Nation, West, with little difficulty in March 1837. Watie established his home in the northeastern corner of the Cherokee Nation, along Honey Creek.

As a signatory of the removal treaty Watie had forfeited his life under the Cherokee blood law, which prescribed the death penalty for anyone alienating tribal land. When the penalty was extracted in June 1839, only Watie, among Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot, escaped execution. Thrust into the forefront of Cherokee politics by the killings, Watie became the lifelong enemy of Cherokee Chief John Ross.

With the onset of the American Civil War Ross wavered in forming a Cherokee-Confederate alliance. However, Watie accepted a commission as a colonel in the Confederate States Army and raised the First Regiment of Cherokee Mounted Volunteers. Fearing a coup, Ross reluctantly agreed to a Cherokee-Confederate alliance. However, when the opportunity arose, Ross fled to Federal-controlled territory. In August 1862, Watie replaced Ross as principal chief.

In spite of early successes, by the winter of 1862–63 the Confederate hold on the Cherokee Nation was slipping. Nonetheless, Watie's Regiment continued to harass Federal forces. In June and September 1864, he scored his greatest military feats in the capture of the Union steamboat J. R. Williams and the Second Battle of Cabin Creek. In May 1864 Watie was promoted to brigadier general, and in February 1865 he was placed in command of the Indian Division of Indian Territory. However, by then the war was lost. Watie surrendered on June 23, 1865. He was the last Confederate general to do so. Afterward, he served as a member of the pro-Southern Cherokee delegation to the Fort Smith Council in September 1865.

After the Civil War ended, Watie remained in exile in the Choctaw Nation until 1867. He then returned to Honey Creek to rebuild his home. He died there on September 9, 1871. He was buried in the old Ridge Cemetery, later called Polson's Cemetery, in Delaware County, Oklahoma.

Stand Watie had four wives: Eleanor Looney, Elizabeth Fields, Isabella Hicks, and Sarah Caroline Bell. Elizabeth Fields's and Watie's child died during childbirth in 1836. He married Sarah Caroline Bell in 1842. They had three sons and two daughters. All died without issue.

Information by Kenny A. Franks, courtesy Oklahoma Encyclopedia of History and Culture
Photo courtesy Oklahoma Historical Society.
Image may contain: 1 person

12/11/2017 8:41 PM

Topic :   Slave girl’s words resonate in 21st Century

Documented proof black girl raped by Yankee soldier, in her own words.   

OpinionColumnistsWilliam F. B. O'Reilly

Slave girl’s words resonate in 21st Century

Southern women, white and black, were targets of sexual assault by Union soldiers during the Civil War.

Union military re-enactors.

Union military re-enactors.

He did what married people do. I am but a child.”

— Jenny Green, 1864

Little is known about Jenny Green. There are no photographs of her. If she married and had children, history didn’t well record it.

What we do know, thanks to the writings of Yale University associate professor Crystal N. Feimster, is that Jenny was a “colored” slave girl who did something remarkable in the summer of 1864 — something that cries out for recognition more than 150 years later as a torrent of high-profile sexual assault allegations pours into public view.

Jenny slipped her plantation bonds early that summer, seeking and finding refuge at a Union Army outpost in Richmond, Virginia. There, in ostensible safety, after enduring a childhood of unimaginable degradation, at a moment that should have been marked by inexpressible joy, Jenny was raped by a Union officer named Lt. Andrew J. Smith of the 11th Pennsylvania Cavalry.

It was hardly an isolated attack.

Southern women, white and black, were frequent targets of sexual assault by Union soldiers during the war, so much so that President Abraham Lincoln felt compelled to issue General Order No. 100, aka the Lieber Code of 1863, declaring, among other things, “ . . . all rape, wounding, maiming, or killing of such inhabitants [of occupied territories], are prohibited under the penalty of death.”

Jenny Green, who couldn’t have been more than 12 or 13 years old at the time, took Lincoln up on his new decree. The former slave, almost certainly unable to read or write, filed charges against a white Union military officer, and, before an all-male tribunal testified that Smith, “Threw me on the floor, pulled up my dress; he held my hands with one hand, held part of himself with the other hand and went into me. It hurt. He did what married people do. I am but a child.”

The jury believed her. Smith was found guilty and sentenced to 10 years of hard labor, lucky to escape death, Union Gen. Benjamin Butler noted at the time.

There is no Norman Rockwell painting of Jenny Green in court that day. One wishes there were — a painting as powerful as Rockwell’s “The Problem We All Live” or “Freedom of Speech.”

It would speak to the simplest of truths, once uttered by a brave runaway slave girl, and now being spoken by so many of her American descendants: “I was wronged, and that is not right.”

William F. B. O’Reilly is a consultant to Republicans.

11/26/2017 11:39 PM

Re :   Aimoo Help Forum

 Facebook deleted the Aimoo Help Group. If you are at Facebook join "Aimoo Assistance" at .This is the backup Aimoo Help group, in case

server 4 or Aimoo are down. If you are not at Facebook, then book mark the page.

The Aimoo Help group is at .You have to be a member

to post. It is on server 4. If server 4 and Aimoo are up, then use this group to report problems. 

10/30/2017 11:25 PM

Re :   Cooper: The irony of moving a peacemaker

 The link is at .Roy nailed it.

Roy Exum: A.P.’s Statue Is Staying

Thursday, September 28, 2017 - by Roy Exum
Roy Exum
Roy Exum

The Hamilton County Commission was at its all-time best yesterday when a resolution was presented to remove a statue of a Confederate officer from the entrance of the courthouse in Chattanooga. There was thoughtful discussion, not from “both sides” but rather between kindred elected officials each eager to do the right thing as harmoniously as possible. There was great discussion Wednesday from every voice that was heard.

I am on record in the belief that tearing down a statue is to let emotion and prejudice cloud one’s decision and that the statue craze is a big part of what I see is tearing America up today. Statues of every type are our history and to muffle any part of what has happened since 1776 is shameful.

I can also go on record with the strong belief the monument to A.P. Stewart on the courthouse front law will remain in place – this crowd of nine commissioners is above knee-jerk stupidity and the ridiculous tweets that feed our nation’s savage fire every day. The only thing worst than removing that statue would be to bash the Bible and, in this town, that will never happen.

America is mad. Those on the left howl and have protests over everything. They quiver when they talk and their outbursts are comical. The right, just as quiet as when Obama was president eight years, watches and agrees with what Steven Miller just wrote on Fox: “My question to the Democrats (and media) is simple: What voters in that big chunk of the country turned red do you plan to win back on a platform of kneeling for the National Anthem, revoking due process, removing monuments of our founders, or backing Kim Jong Un in a nuclear showdown?”

“The more the left has ramped up its cultural war, the more their governing power has diminished. Who cares if the Affordable Care Act wiped them from the electoral map, as long as Jimmy Kimmel gets his sick burns in,” Miller added and he’s right. Democrats will get mauled at the polls next year. The liberals are in tatters without any rudder.

I like this take by the National Review writer, too. “Donald Trump’s election should have been a giant wake up call to both the media and the left that the causes they care about and blast out with their bylines are not the issues Americans care about. They may view Donald Trump’s twitter commentary as beneath the office of the presidency, but they can forgive a lot when the other party is demanding they bend the knee.” 

The NAACP is planning a march around the courthouse in protest of the Stewart statue this Sunday but they’d do better joining hands and singing “Kumbaya,” which began – seriously -- as “the sincere plea of a generation of African Americans for God’s intervention.” We need God’s mercy as a country a lot more that hand-wringing over statues in a community that has a great number of them.

Maine Governor Paul LePage, who doesn’t read newspapers because he believes the liberal reporters are “pencil terrorists,” had this to say about Confederate statues, “How can future generations learn if we're going to erase history? That's disgusting," he said. "They should study their history — they don't even know the history of this country and they are trying to take monuments down. Listen, whether we like it or not, this is what our history is." 

Then he took it up a notch: "To me, it's just like going to New York City right now and taking down the monument of those who perished in 9/11. It will come to that." 

When they just took down statues in Southern cities, a quick review reveals almost every city had a Democrat-heavy governing body. In Chattanooga Mayor Andy Berke, a noted liberal, created an outrage when he wanted the city to disenfranchise itself with the “Confederate Cemetery” but Hamilton County government is solidly conservative with a make-up of seven whites and two blacks.

As eloquent and as solid as Greg Beck and Dr. Warren Mackey most certainly are, it’s the GOP that will keep General Stewart in place, not race (witness the recent swell to memorialize Ed Johnson, who was black, after he was wrongly hanged over 100 years ago.)

Commissioner Greg Martin said it best, “How can we look at the 19th century, and what those Americans believed, through a 21st century lens? I don’t believe that’s fair. And when you study, you realize its importance and meaning in the 21st century.”

Joe Graham, truthfully stating that some people deny the Holocaust despite the brilliant museum in Washington and visible prison camps in Germany, wants to know, “Where does this stop? To deny history, no matter how personally distasteful, does a disservice to our children. We need to teach them this was wrong.”

Then Beck revealed this view. “You can say what you want about a statue … but all I see is the Confederate uniform. That is unacceptable in the lawn of all places where we should all be equal … I personally do not like the statues of the two naked women on Market Street. You can talk about art all you want to, but all I see is two naked women,” he said, drawing laughter and smiles.

Each county commissioner has an opinion but, more, a belief. This is a fun conversation but you won’t get odds on the outcome in Las Vegas or Birchwood. It ain’t happening.

10/04/2017 10:38 AM

Re :   Cooper: The irony of moving a peacemaker

 The link is at .

County Commission Votes 6-2 To Keep Bust Of Confederate General At County Courthouse

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

The County Commission voted 6-2 on Wednesday to keep the bust of Confederate General A.P. Stewart on the south lawn of the Hamilton County Courthouse.

In favor of keeping the bust were Chester Bankston, Jim Fields, Joe Graham, Randy Fairbanks, Greg Martin and Tim Boyd.

Voting to move it were Greg Beck and Warren Mackey.

Sabrena Smedley was absent due to a medical procedure.

Former City Councilman Yusuf Hakeem, representing the NAACP, said the "symbolism is not one of bringing people together. It is a public space and we are all taxpayers."

He said, "Quite frankly, is this good for business in our community as a whole?""

Mr. Hakeem also said, "Place the statue where the story of General Stewart can be told in context." He suggested Chickamauga Battlefield or a museum.

Bea Lurie said brought up images of Hitler and said of General Stewart, "He had a choice to fight for the Confederacy and against our nation. We call that a traitor."

Commissioner Beck, who proposed the resolution, recommended that an eagle be placed at the site in place of the bust of General Stewart.

He said, "Some people put on a different uniform, and you shoot the hell out of your neighbor. That's crazy. We don't want to remember the Civil War."

Chuck Hamilton, who said he is a relative of General Stewart, said he was on the Chickamauga Park Commission and the park would be an appropriate place for the bust. 

Commissioner Fields said county officials who placed the bust were honoring his service to Tennessee. He said, "The thoughts were different back then. Folks were a lot more loyal to their state than the country." 

He said he could not second guess the council that put the bust in place. He said General Stewart "was a man who was torn" in his loyalties.

Chris Dooley, a retired military officer, said General Stewart was honored "as a great leader and as a unifier of our nation at a time when it was torn. He did something very positive."

He said the bust "should not be thrown in the dust heap, but General Stewart should be held up as a man who did good things."

10/04/2017 10:32 AM

Topic :   Southern Secession Was Lawful: Uncovering the Truth in American History

The link is at .

Southern Secession Was Lawful: Uncovering the Truth in American History

August 31, 2017 Columnists , Mike Scruggs 25667 Views

Southern Secession Was Lawful: Uncovering the Truth in American History

On July 4, 1776, thirteen British colonies announced their Secession from Great Britain and declared to the world their just reasons:

“When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to separation.”

The Declaration of Independence goes on to say that,

“…Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, that whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government…”

The Declaration goes on to list numerous grievances against the British Crown and Parliament. Most of these had to do with the British Crown and Parliament usurping the powers of the colonial legislatures. Among the most prominent of these were unjust taxes and taxation without representation. They also asserted that the British Crown and Parliament would not listen to their complaints and pleas for relief. In other words, the colonists felt the Crown and Parliament had usurped their States Rights.

The grievances against the British stated in the Declaration of Independence in 1776 are very similar to Southern protests over the Tariffs of Abomination in 1828 and 1832 and the even more outrageous and unjust Morrill Tariff of 1860 that made secession of South Carolina and the Gulf States an inevitable economic necessity.

The closing statement of the Declaration of Independence declares that the colonies are “Free and Independent States.” This paragraph also contains the words, “appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World” and “with firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence.” Note that the United States of America were not formed into a single national state, but into a confederation of independent and sovereign states.

Previous to the Declaration of Independence, both North Carolina (May 15, 1775) and Virginia (early 1776) had already declared their independence from Great Britain. The right of self-determination for people seeking independence is firmly established in international law. With U.S. backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903. In the United States, the right of self determination and therefore secession is supported by the precedence of the Declaration of Independence which declared our own secession from Great Britain.

Furthermore, the right of secession was very well stated by none other than Congressman Abraham Lincoln himself in 1848:

“Any people anywhere, being inclined and having the power, have the right to rise up and shake off the existing government and form a new one that suits them better. This is a most valuable and most sacred right, a right which we hope and believe is to liberate the world….Any people that can may revolutionize and make their own of so much territory as they inhabit.”

While the Declaration of Independence is of immense importance as a founding document, it is the Constitution of 1787 and the Bill of Rights ratified in 1791 that are the official founding documents. The Constitution was made official by the approval of the people of each state acting independently in convention, not by the people of the United States in general. Nor did these states surrender their sovereignty to the United States. Only limited governmental powers were delegated to the Federal Government and every state reserved the right to withdraw these powers. In fact, three states—Rhode Island, Virginia, and New York—specifically stated in their ratifications that they reserved the right to withdraw. Other states had less strongly worded reservations, but no state would have ratified the Constitution if they believed that in doing so they would be surrendering their newly won independence. It was to guarantee the sovereignty of the states that the ninth and tenth amendments were added to the Bill of Rights.

The Ninth Amendment: “The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”

The Tenth Amendment: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

New Hampshire’s constitution of 1792 contains very strong words reserving its sovereign powers as a state. In 1798, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison circulated the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions among the states. Known as the “Principles of 98,” these resolutions strongly supported the Doctrine of States Rights and nullification and secession as rightful remedies. No states disagreed!

The New England states threatened secession on five occasions: in 1803 because they feared the Louisiana Purchase would dilute their political power; in 1807 because the Embargo Act was unfavorable to their commerce; in 1812 over the admission of Louisiana as a state; in 1814 (the Hartford Convention) because of the War of 1812; and in 1845 over the annexation of Texas (which had seceded from Mexico). From 1803 to 1845, any time New England felt their political power or commercial dominance might suffer, they threatened secession. Many New England abolitionists favored secession because the Constitution allowed slavery.

As early as 1825, the right of secession was taught at West Point. William Rawle’s View of the Constitution specifically taught that secession was a right of each state and was used as a text at West Point in 1825 and 1826 and thereafter as a reference. Rawle was a friend of both George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, and his 1825 text was highly respected and used at many colleges. A subsequent text by James Kent maintained the same position and was used at West Point until the end of the war in 1865

The right of secession was almost universally accepted until 1861, when Lincoln came up with a new theory of the Constitution based on an 1833 text by Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story. Story’s theory was that there was an American nation in the minds of the people before the states were formed. Lincoln adopted Story’s constitutional humbug as an expedient argument against secession and for holding the Southern States in the Union against their will.

So Lincoln characterized the orderly secession conventions of South Carolina and the Gulf States, conducted in accordance with Rawle’s text on the Constitution, as a rebellion perpetrated by a small minority and commenced a path every member of his cabinet knew meant war.

The function of the Constitution is to define and limit the powers of the Federal Government. It was ratified by the people of the States. From this ratification and consent by the people of the respective States, the Constitution derives its validity. The Tenth Amendment was meant as a final reinforcement and written guarantee that the powers of the Federal Government would be limited to those enumerated in the Constitution. This was a safeguard against the infringement of rights and powers retained by the States and their people. It was also a safeguard against the tyranny, despotism, and abuses which have so often evolved from unchecked centralized power.

Southern historian Clyde Wilson notes that the people of the States do not derive their rights from the federal judiciary, nor have they by any means delegated that power to federal judges. The people of the States have reserved the power to determine their unalienable rights to themselves. The Tenth Amendment thus cannot be left to the Federal Government and its courts to ignore or interpret for themselves. A defining characteristic of a constitutional government is that power must not be allowed to define its own limits. Power must be checked and restrained by an equal or greater power.

I rest the case for lawful secession with two final quotes:

“If you bring these [Southern] leaders to trial, it will condemn the North, for by the Constitution, secession is not rebellion….We cannot convict him [ CSA President, Jefferson Davis] of treason”—Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1867.

“The principal for which we contend is bound to reassert itself, though it may be at another time and in another form.”—Jefferson Davis

About the Author- Mike Scruggs, Author and Columnist a.k.a. Leonard M. Scruggs.

Mike Scruggs is the author of two books: The Un-Civil War: Shattering the Historical Myths; and Lessons from the Vietnam War: Truths the Media Never Told You, and over 600 articles on military history, national security, intelligent design, genealogical genetics, immigration, current political affairs, Islam, and the Middle East.

He holds a BS degree from the University of Georgia and an MBA from Stanford University. A former USAF intelligence officer and Air Commando, he is a decorated combat veteran of the Vietnam War, and holds the Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart, and Air Medal. He is a retired First Vice President for a major national financial services firm and former Chairman of the Board of a classical Christian school.

Find his books on this website:

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR   –  Mike Scruggs, Author and Columnist

a.k.a. Leonard M. Scruggs

 Mike Scruggs is the author of two books: The Un-Civil War: Shattering the Historical Myths; and Lessons from the Vietnam War: Truths the Media Never Told You, and over 600 articles on military history, national security, intelligent design, genealogical genetics, immigration, current political affairs, Islam, and the Middle East.

He holds a BS degree from the University of Georgia and an MBA from Stanford University. A former USAF intelligence officer and Air Commando, he is a decorated combat veteran of the Vietnam War, and holds the Distinguished Flying Cross, Purple Heart, and Air Medal. He is a retired First Vice President for a major national financial services firm and former Chairman of the Board of a classical Christian school.

Click the website below to order books. 

10/01/2017 8:25 PM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!

as of now, might avert the additional 3 operations. BUT, with the nerve endings in my leg waking up, will bring a fair amount of pain. back on the muscle relaxer and norco. UUGGH. I thought I was in deep sshhhh.... last night when I could not get up or move my leg.

09/18/2017 7:59 PM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!

 I understand.

09/04/2017 7:15 PM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!

 I dont get online much anymore, but still pop by here a few times a month.

09/04/2017 2:42 PM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!

 You did not wear me out. It sounds like, you had a great vacation.

I am so glad, that you are getting disability and some state aid.  

If you are at Facebook, you are welcome to send me a friends invite.

I am at .

09/02/2017 2:02 AM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!

Yes, I got approved just recently, first payment starts first week of September I guess.
Up yonder we have a MIBRIDGES card for food, a whoppin $96, dont go far at gfs. So I
use that just for condiments, small things like gatorade/tea/lunchmeat/bread and such.

As for pics, my trip last year, got... well had over 300 pics along the way. US23, started
in Portsmouth Ohio on down to Kingsport Tn, Tail of the dragon, tree of shame, Stone
mtn Ga, Lake worth area, Eastern edge of the everglades, FT.Meyers and Bradenton,
ran outta time for a venture across the sunshine skyway tho. Did I wear`ya out there?
I got back home, and the phone puked out AAGGHHH!!!!!

09/01/2017 11:02 AM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!



Your pictures are very beautiful. Are you going on disability? Get well very soon.


09/01/2017 1:56 AM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!

Got a loooong way to go, 9 surgeries in a month time, possibly 3 more within a year. Hate to put it this way, but there is no other way.
Found out who my REAL friends are. Many are ones from down yonder, and only 60% local.
And I was always one to throw a hand in when asked. SHAME ON ME one distant one, Maumee Oh, made the 1hr 20 ride to
pop on by for 3 hrs, just as I was coming from recovery, and back to my room in ICU. I was so drugged up and out of it
I barely remember the visit, but got a few pics.

08/31/2017 10:58 AM

Re :   DESTROYED!!!!


I am so sorry to read about your accident. I found the Macomb County Sheriff's Office Facebook page at .I have liked the post.

Get well very soon.


08/29/2017 10:21 PM

Topic :   DESTROYED!!!!

April 21st pretty much ended me, and 28 years out on 2. I had just started at
another shop 3 weeks before. After a evening out with a few buddies, showin
off my new riding gear I had just gotten 4 days before. It has the shoulder-
 elbow and back armor, my old gear was about 15 years old, and yes, still cant
find me another Rebel vest. (not that it matters now)

SSSSOOOO, on my way home, I had someone turn left right into/ in front of me.
Not really sure myself, I dont remember much more than leaving the restaraunt,
and friends house and first 6 miles on my way home. Hit me so hard on the rh
side of the bike it shattered my leg, and sending bone thru my upper leg,
snapped my wrist, hand was on the 45 degree angle, back, neck and head
injures now. The armor somewhat did its job, no broken elbow, shoulder or other
internal injuries. The back protector didnt do no good in this case, its function is if
your rolling/ skidding across pavement.

 The bike, just as bad, the rh mirrors and side marker light- gone, broke off the front
master cylinder (brake) cracked the clutch cover in 3, as well as the lower engine
casing. The front forks where shoved into the engine as well. The only thing that was
able to be salvaged with the wheels/tires. It even cracked the tail light somehow.

Now its either, walker/ crutches or a wheelchair. Not sure if i`ll walk again, or even in a
year yet. Good thing I did my marathon vacation/ visiting last year. Looks like i`m now
the poster child for motorcycle awareness????

08/29/2017 9:20 AM

Re :   'Antifa' radicals plan to desecrate Gettysburg graves

These "usefull idiot" antifa tolls/fools are diggin their own grave. I had a runin with a few back in the winter, did`nt end well for them(wink wink).

08/29/2017 8:47 AM

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