Light & Shadows of Chalandor Book of Shadows
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Rank:Diamond Member

Score: 5631
Posts: 5631
From: USA
Registered: 11/21/2008

(Date Posted:02/13/2009 00:15 AM)
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All Herbs
Starting with
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Supplement Forms / Alternate Names
  • Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Fumarate, Magnesium Gluconate, Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Sulfate
Principal Proposed Uses
  • Diabetes, Hypertension (High Blood Pressure), Kidney Stones, Migraine Headaches, Noise-related Hearing Loss
Other Proposed Uses
  • Angina, Asthma, Atherosclerosis, Autism, Congestive Heart Failure, Coronary Artery Disease, Fatigue, Fibromyalgia, Glaucoma, Low HDL ("Good") Cholesterol, Mitral Valve Prolapse, Osteoporosis, Painful Menstruation (Dysmenorrhea), PMS, Preeclampsia, Pregnancy-induced Leg Cramps, Restless Legs Syndrome, Stroke
Not Recommended Uses
  • Following a Heart Attack

Magnesium is an essential nutrient, meaning that your body needs it for healthy functioning. It is found in significant quantities throughout the body and used for numerous purposes, including muscle relaxation, blood clotting, and the manufacture of ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the body's main energy molecule).

It has been called "nature's calcium channel blocker." The idea refers to magnesium's ability to block calcium from entering muscle and heart cells. A group of prescription heart medications work in a similar way, although much more powerfully. This may be the basis for some of magnesium's effects when it is taken as a supplement in fairly high doses.


Requirements for magnesium increase as we grow and age. The official U.S. and Canadian recommendations for daily intake are as follows:

  • Infants 0–6 months, 30 mg
    7–12 months, 75 mg
  • Children 1–3 years, 80 mg
    4–8 years, 130 mg
  • Males 9–13 years, 240 mg
    14–18 years, 410 mg
    19–30 years, 400 mg
    31 years and older, 420 mg
  • Females 9–13 years, 240 mg
    14–18 years, 360 mg
    19–30 years, 310 mg
    31 years and older, 320 mg
  • Pregnant women 18 years and younger, 400 mg
    19–30 years, 350 mg
    31–50 years, 360 mg
  • Nursing women 18 years and younger, 360 mg
    19–30 years, 310 mg
    31–50 years, 320 mg

Note: These recommendations refer to total intake from food plus supplements. The average diet provides a daily intake of magnesium very close to these amounts.

In the United States, the average dietary intake of magnesium is lower than the recommended daily allowance; however, it is unclear whether this truly indicates deficiency, or if the recommended allowance is too high. Alcohol abuse, surgery, diabetes, zinc supplements, certain types of diuretics (thiazide and loop diuretics, but not potassium-sparing diuretics), estrogen and oral contraceptives, and the medications cisplatin and cyclosporin have been reported to reduce your body's level of magnesium or increase magnesium requirements. If you are taking potassium supplements, you may receive greater benefit from them if you take extra magnesium as well.

While it is sometimes said that calcium interferes with magnesium absorption, this effect is apparently too small to have a significant effect on overall magnesium status.

Kelp is very high in magnesium, as are wheat bran, wheat germ, almonds, and cashews. Other good sources include blackstrap molasses, brewer's yeast (not to be confused with nutritional yeast), buckwheat, nuts, and whole grains. You can also get appreciable amounts of magnesium from collard greens, dandelion greens, avocado, sweet corn, cheddar cheese, sunflower seeds, shrimp, dried fruit (figs, apricots, and prunes), and many other common fruits and vegetables.

Therapeutic Dosages

A typical supplemental dosage of magnesium ranges from the nutritional needs described above to as high as 600 mg daily. For premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), an alternative approach is to start taking 500 to 1,000 mg daily, beginning on day 15 of the menstrual cycle and continuing until menstruation begins.

Magnesium citrate may be slightly more absorbable than other forms of magnesium.

Therapeutic Uses

Preliminary double-blind studies suggest that regular use of magnesium supplements may help prevent migraine headaches, hearing loss caused by exposure to loud noises, and kidney stones, and help treat high blood pressure, angina, dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps), pregnancy-induced leg cramps, and PMS (including menstrual migraines).

People with diabetes are often deficient in magnesium, and according to some (but not all) studies, magnesium supplementation may enhance blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes or prediabetic conditions.

One study found that magnesium supplements might be helpful for people with mitral valve prolapse who also have low levels of magnesium in the blood.

There is some evidence that magnesium may decrease the atherosclerosis risk caused by hydrogenated oils, margarine-like fats found in many "junk" foods.

Studies on magnesium supplements for improving sports performance have returned contradictory results.

Magnesium supplements do not appear to be very helpful, if at all, for preventing preeclampsia. (Magnesium, taken by injection rather than orally, however, is probably helpful for treating preeclampsia that already exists.)

Magnesium is sometimes said to decrease symptoms of restless legs syndrome, but the evidence that it works consists solely of open trials without a placebo group, and such studies are not trustworthy. (For information on why this is so, see Why Does the Natural Pharmacist Rely on Double-blind Studies?) Very weak evidence hints at possible benefits for insomnia.

Magnesium has also been suggested as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit disorder, fatigue, fibromyalgia, low HDL ("good") cholesterol, osteoporosis, periodontal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and stroke. However, there is virtually no evidence at all that it is effective for any of these conditions.

Magnesium is sometimes suggested for stabilizing the heart after a heart attack, but one study actually found that use of magnesium slighltly increased risk of sudden death, repeat heart attack, or need for bypass surgery in the year following the initial heart attack. However, magnesium may be helpful in congestive heart failure.

Despite some early enthusiasm, combination therapy with vitamin-B6 and magnesium has not been found helpful in autism.

Alternative medical literature frequently mentions magnesium as a treatment for asthma. However, this idea seems to be based entirely on the use of intravenous magnesium as an emergency treatment for asthma. When you take something by mouth, it's a very different matter from having it injected into your veins. There is no real evidence that oral magnesium helps asthma, and even some evidence that it does not help.

Although magnesium is sometimes mentioned as a treatment to help keep the heart beating normally, a 6-month, double-blind trial of 170 people did not find it effective for preventing a particular heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation. However, a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that magnesium supplements reduced episodes of arrythmia in individuals with congestive heart failure. One possible explanation: people with congestive heart failure often take drugs (loop diuretics) that deplete magnesium. The combination of magnesium deficiency with digoxin (another drug given for CHF) may cause arrhythmias. Thus, it is possible that the benefits seen here were caused by correction of that depletion.

One double-blind, placebo-controlled study failed to find magnesium helpful in glaucoma.

What Is the Scientific Evidence for Magnesium?

Migraine Headaches

A double-blind study found that regular use of magnesium helps prevent migraine headaches. In this 12-week trial, 81 people with recurrent migraines were given either 600 mg of magnesium daily or placebo. By the last 3 weeks of the study, the treated group's migraines had been reduced by 41.6%, compared to a reduction of 15.8% in the placebo group. The only side effects observed were diarrhea (in about one-fifth of the participants) and, less often, digestive irritation.

Similar results have been seen in other smaller double-blind studies. One study found no benefit,57 but it has been criticized on many significant points, including using an excessively strict definition of what constituted benefit.

Noise-related Hearing Loss

One double-blind, placebo-controlled study on 300 military recruits suggests that 167 mg of magnesium daily can prevent hearing loss due to exposure to high-volume noise.

Kidney Stones

Magnesium inhibits the growth of calcium oxalate stones in the test tube and decreases stone formation in rats. However, human studies have had mixed results. In one 2-year open study, 56 people taking magnesium hydroxide had fewer recurrences of kidney stones than 34 people not given magnesium. In contrast, a double-blind (and, hence, more reliable) study of 124 people found that magnesium hydroxide was essentially no more effective than placebo.

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

Magnesium works with calcium and potassium to regulate blood pressure. Several studies suggest that magnesium supplements can reduce blood pressure in people with hypertension, although some have not.


In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 187 people with angina, 6 months of treatment with magnesium at a dose of 730 mg daily improved exercise tolerance and enhanced overall quality of life. Benefits were also seen in a similar, smaller double-blind trial.

After a Heart Attack

In a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 468 individuals who had just experienced a heart attack, use of a magnesium supplement at a dose of 360 mg daily failed to prevent heart-related events (defined as heart attack, sudden cardiac death, or need for cardiac bypass), and actually may have increased the risk slightly.


A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 50 women with menstrual pain found that treatment with magnesium significantly improved symptoms. The researchers reported evidence of reduced levels of prostaglandin F2 alpha, a hormone-like substance involved in pain and inflammation.

Similarly positive results were seen in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 21 women.

PMS Symptoms

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 32 women found that magnesium taken from day 15 of the menstrual cycle to the onset of menstrual flow could significantly improve PMS symptoms, specifically mood changes.

Another small double-blind preliminary study found that regular use of magnesium could reduce symptoms of PMS-related fluid retention. In this study, 38 women were given magnesium or placebo for 2 months. The results showed no effect after one cycle, but by the end of two cycles, magnesium significantly reduced weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness, and abdominal bloating.

In addition, one small double-blind study (20 participants) found that magnesium supplementation can help prevent menstrual migraines.

Preliminary evidence suggests that the combination of magnesium and vitamin B6 might be more effective than either treatment alone.

Pregnancy-induced Leg Cramps

Pregnant women frequently experience painful leg cramping. One double-blind trial of 73 pregnant women found that 3 weeks of magnesium supplements significantly reduced leg cramps as compared to placebo.

Safety Issues

The U.S. government has set the following upper limits for use of magnesium supplements:

  • Children 1–3 years, 65 mg
  • Children 4–8 years, 110 mg
  • Adults, 350 mg
  • Pregnant or nursing women, 350 mg

In general, magnesium appears to be quite safe when taken at or below recommended dosages. The most common complaint is loose stools. However, people with severe kidney or heart disease should not take magnesium (or any other supplement) except on the advice of a physician. Maximum safe dosages have not been established for young children. There has been one case of death caused by excessive use of magnesium supplements in a developmentally and physically disabled child. Pregnant or nursing women should not exceed the nutritional dosages presented under Requirements/Sources.

If taken at the same time, magnesium can interfere with the absorption of antibiotics in the tetracycline family and, possibly, the drug nitrofurantoin. Also, when combined with oral diabetes drugs in the sulfonylurea family (Tolinase, Micronase, Orinase, Glucotrol, Diabinese, DiaBeta), magnesium may cause blood sugar levels to fall more than expected.

Interactions You Should Know About

If you are taking

  • Potassium supplements, manganese, loop, and thiazide diuretics, oral contraceptives, estrogen-replacement therapy, cisplatin, digoxin, or medications that reduce stomach acid: You may need extra magnesium.
  • Antibiotics in the tetracycline family or nitrofurantoin (Macrodantin): You should separate your magnesium dose from doses of these medications by at least 2 hours to avoid absorption problems.
  • Oral diabetes medications in the sulfonylurea family: Work closely with your physician when taking magnesium to avoid hypoglycemia.
  • Amiloride: Do not take magnesium supplements except on medical advice.

Malic Acid

Supplement Forms / Alternate Names
  • Apple Acid
Principal Proposed Uses
  • None
Other Proposed Uses
  • Fibromyalgia

The body synthesizes malic acid during the process of converting carbohydrates to energy. Extremely preliminary evidence suggests that individuals with the disease fibromyalgia (a disorder that involves fatigue and pain in the muscles) might have difficulty creating or utilizing malic acid. Such a deficiency could interfere with normal muscle function.

Based on this supposition, products containing malic acid and other nutrients were widely offered for sale to people with fibromyalgia. However, there is as yet no evidence that these products are in fact helpful.


The body produces its own malic acid. Many fruits and vegetables also supply malic acid, most notably apples.

Therapeutic Dosages

In studies and commercial products, the usual dose of malic acid for fibromyalgia is 1,200 to 2,800 mg per day, generally combined with magnesium and other nutrients.

Therapeutic Uses

Malic acid is a major ingredient in combination treatments used for fibromyalgia. However, there is no meaningful evidence that it works.

What Is the Scientific Evidence for Malic Acid?

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 24 individuals with fibromyalgia were given either placebo or malic acid (1,200 mg per day) combined with magnesium (300 mg daily). After 4 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference between the placebo and malic acid groups.

The researchers then gave all participants the malic acid combination and increased the dose over a 6-month period. A significant improvement in fibromyalgia symptoms was found after the dose reached about 1,600 mg of malic acid with 400 mg of magnesium. However, because this part of the trial was not blinded or controlled, the results may be entirely due to the placebo effect. Only a properly designed double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the higher malic acid dose could demonstrate that it really works, and as yet none have been reported.

Safety Issues

Malic acid appears to be safe at recommended dosages. A few people reported loose stools at the higher doses in the above studies, possibly due to the magnesium in the combination.

Safety in pregnant or nursing women, children, or individuals with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established.

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From: USA

(Date Posted:02/13/2009 00:15 AM)


(Spiraea Ulmaria)

Meadowsweet is common in damp woods and meadows, in fens and by riversides throughout Europe, including the British Isles. It has fernlike foliage and tufts of delicate, graceful, creamy-white flowers, which are in blossom from June to almost September. The leaves are dark green on the upper side and whitish and downy underneath which pinnate, with 5-11 fine-toothed leaflets. The flowers are small, clustered close together in irregularly-branched inflorescence, and have a very strong, sweet smell. The whole herb possesses a pleasant taste and flavour, the green parts partaking of the aromatic character of the flowers. It has been used as a medicinal plant since ancient times and it remains popular as a herbal remedy.

Folk names: Meadsweet. Dolloff. Queen of the Meadow. Bridewort. Lady of the Meadow. 

Gender: Feminine

Planet: Jupiter

Powers: Love, attraction, calming and release of tension.

Magical Uses:

Used for love magick, and to help with happy energy. This is a subtle, but aromatic herb which can be used as the symbol for love when casting a spell for attraction. You can also burn the dried herb in your home to get rid of negative tension, and provide a warm, uplifting atmosphere. Linked with Water and Jupiter.

Tradition said that this was a sacred plant to the Druids, and certainly it was much used as a strewing herb because of its pleasant smell. John Gerard describes it thusly: 'The leavs and floures farr excell all other strong herbs, for to deck up houses, to straw in chambers, halls, and banqueting houses in Summer time; for the smell thereof makes the heart merrie, delighteth the senses...'. And it was said, too, that 'Queene Elizabeth of famous memory, did more desire it than any other herb to strew her chambers withall.' 

It is one of the fifty ingredients in a drink called 'Save,' mentioned in Chaucer's Knight's Tale, in the fourteenth century being called Medwort, or Meadwort. The common name, Meadowsweet, is said to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon word medu (= mead) because the plant was once used to flavour the drink made from fermented honey.

Medicinal Action and Uses:

Actice ingredients include; compounds of salicylic acid, flavone-glycosides, essential oil and tannins. Aromatic, astringent, diuretic, and sub-tonic. It is used as a diuretic and to treat fever, flu and rheumatism and infusions of flower tea used to treat stomach ulcers and headaches. It was in the flowerheads that salicylic acid was first discovered in 1839. It was from this substance that aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) was later synthesised.

Description of the herb meadowsweet

Meadowsweet is a tall, stout and fragrant, clump-forming perennial with deeply veined leaves and creamy white, almond scented flowers (in summer).

Parts used

The dried flowers, as well as the other above ground parts can be used.


Meadowsweet is a soothing healing herb with astringent, aromatic and antacid properties, helping to relieve rheumatic muscle and joint pain.

It is high in flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, gallo- and ellagitannins and an essential oil containing methylsalicylate and salicylaldehyde.

Therapeutic uses

Internal use

It is used internally with great effect on digestive problems, such as peptic ulcer, heartburn and gastritis.

It has an analgesic effect and is of value to bring down fevers, as well as to treat the common cold.

Furthermore it is of value for rheumatism and arthritis and has a diuretic effect as well.

For children it has benefit as an antipyretic, bringing down fever, and as a mild anti-diarrhea treatment.

Not to be used by people hypersensitive to aspirin / salicylates.


Botanical: Pistacia Lentiscus (LINN.)
Family: N.O. Anacardiaceae 

Synonyms:  Mastich. Lentisk.
Part Used:  Resin
Description and Habitat:  A shrub rarely growing higher than 12 feet, much branched, and found freely scattered over the Mediterranean region, in Spain, Portugal, France, Greece, Turkey, the Canary Islands, and Tropical Africa. It has been cultivated in England since 1664. It is principally exported from Scio, on which island it has been cultivated for several centuries. The trees there are said to be entire male.

The best Mastic occurs in roundish tears about the size of a small pea, or in flattened, irregular pear-shaped, or oblong pieces covered with a whitish powder. They are pale yellow in colour, which darkens with age. The odour is agreeable and the taste mild and resinous, and when chewed it becomes soft, so that it can easily be masticated. This characteristic enables it to be distinguished froma resin called Sanderach, which it resembles, but which when bitten breaks to powder.

Constituents:  Mastic contains a small proportion of volatile oil, 9 per cent of resinsoluble in alcohol and ether, and 10 per cent of a resin insoluble in alcohol.

Medicinal Action and Properties:

Stimulant, diuretic. It has many of the properties of the coniferous turpentines and was formerly greatly used in medicine. Of late years it has chiefly been used for filling carious teeth, either alone or in spirituous solution, and for varnishes, and in the East in the manufacture of sweets and cordials.

In the East it is still used medicinally in the diarrhoea of children and masticated to sweeten the breath.

What is Mandrake?
  Scientific and medicinal info

The root of the mandrake plant grows in a branching manner and quite often resembles the arms and legs of a human being. This oddity is what led mandrake to be associated with many magickal properties. The root of the mandrake is toxic and should not be used internally for any reason. It grows wild in Southern Europe and can be grown in warm North American climates. The round fruit of the mandrake plant smells like apple, hence the common name of mayapple.

Also Known As ....
  Other names

Latin: Mandragora officinale or Atropa mandragora
Common names: Gallows, Devil's apples, mayapples, mandragona, mannikin, herb of Circe.
A similar species called American Mandrake (Podophyllum peltatum) is a different plant altogether.
Magickal Properties
  Using mandrake in rituals

The root of the mandrake plant is the part used in magick. Whole pieces of the root are carried for protection. Pieces of root can be kept in the house for protection (over the mantle, if you have one). Mandrake can also be used in spells for love, money or health.

Carrying the dried root is fine to use its protective energies, but to use mandrake in other spellwork requires soaking. You should leave the root in spring water for 3 days to 'wake it'.

Mandrake is reputed to be an excellent aphrodesiac, but since it is poisonous, please don't use internally!

The most well-known myth about mandrake is that it screams when uprooted, and that whoever hears this shriek will either drop dead or go mad. This has been popularized by the second Harry Potter movie, where mandrake is also used to cure petrification spells.

In times before modern medicine, pieces of mandrake root were given to patients to chew before surgery, as a form of anaesthetic.

More Correspondences
  Other properties

Planet: Mercury, Saturn
Element: Fire
Deity: Hecate



Mints are mentioned in early medieval plants lists, they were grown in
early English gardens, and were  brought to Britain in Roman Times.
Apicius, in his famous cook book written in the first century, lists
mints in many dishes. Charlemagne (742-814) decreed in 812 that many
acres of mint, together with other herbs, be grown in his famous gardens
of seventy-eight herbs.

The genus name Mentha comes from "Minthe", a charming nymph in classic
Greek mythology who was much adored by Pluto. This so angered Pluto's
wife Prosperine, that she took her revenge by metamorphosing Minthes
into the humble, downtrodden mint plant we now call Mentha. Pluto,
unable to undo the spell, was able to soften it by giving Minthe a sweet
scent which would perfume the air when her leaves were stepped on - the
aromatic herb mint.

The seventeenth century herbalist, Nicholas Culpeper wrote that the herb
stirs up venery, or bodily lust. However, the Roman Pliny, whilst
advising scholars to wear a crown of mint to aid concentration, warned
lovers that it was contrary to procreation. The Greeks believed the
opposite - their soldiers were warned to avoid it for fear that
increased love-making would diminish their courage in battle.

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From: USA

(Date Posted:02/13/2009 00:17 AM)

Magnolia (Magnolia acuminata, Magnolia virginiana), also called Cucumber Tree and Swamp Sassafras, is a mild laxative and is said to help people quit smoking and eat less.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram.
Place leaves under bed for harmonious marriage.

Mallow, Blue & Marsh (N.O. Malvaceae) is used to treat inflammation urinary problems and chest complaints.
Fluid extract: ½ - 2 drams a day.
The scent of this herb lifts the spirits.
The scent of this herb brings good spirits.

Mallow, TreeSea (Lavatera arborea) is used for sprains.
Boil 1 leaf in water and apply to sprain.

Mandrake (Atropa mandragora), also called Satan’s Apple and is an anesthetic; in larger doses it can be deadly...
Chew a bit of the root.
After three years of growth, the root resembles a person’s body and is usually carved with sexual organs and used in love spells. The leaves have been used in necromancy.

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is not generally used medically, as the oil from the skin of the fruit can cause rash.
The fruit of this tree is used to make oneself appear more important.

Maple, Red (Acer rubrum), also called Swamp Maple and Curled Maple, is an astringent used on sore eyes.
Fluid extract: 1 dram per day.

Maple, Striped (Acer platanoides) is a wash for skin eruptions.
Boil 1 leaf in water and apply to sore.

Maple, Vine (Acer circinatum) balances blood sugar and insulin.
1 gram a day.

Marigold, Common (Calendula officinalis) is taken internally for varicose veins and relieves bee stings when rubbed on the afflicted area; the flower treats stomach ulcers.
Fluid extract: ¼ - 1 dram a day.
Sewn into a lover’s pillow to keep them faithful.

Marigold, Marsh (Caltha palustris), also called Kingcups, Blobs and Leopard's Foot, is an irritant.

Marjoram, Sweet & Wild (Origanum marjorana, Origanum vulgare) is given for toothaches, headaches and applied externally to swelling.
½ ounce drunk as tea up to 4 times a day.
The scent of this plant clams obsession, an over-active sex drive and feelings of loneliness.
The plant is used to protect from witchcraft.

Masterwort (Imperatoria ostruthium) is a stimulant and taken for menstrual cramps.
Fluid extract: 1 – 2 drams a day.
The root, when carried, grants respect.

Mastic (Pistacia Lentiscus) is a stimulant, diuretic and sweetens the breath. It is indicated in the prevention of ulcers.
1 ounce drunk as tea through the day up to 3 times a day.
The gum it produces makes a good ink-base.

Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), also called American Mandrake, Hog Apple and Racoonberry, is a dangerous and powerful gastro-intestinal stimulant.
Powdered root: 5 – 30 grains; fluid extract: 5 – 30 drops; whole herb: 1 – 5 grains a day.
Called the Devil’s Apple, the root is used in America as a substitute for Mandrake; the root is carved into a love doll.

Meadowsweet (Spiraea Ulmaria), also called Bridewort and Lady of the Meadow, is used to calm the stomach and stop diarrhea.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram a day.
The scent of this plant is calming.
This plant is used to relieve tension in a home when in-laws visit.

Melilot (Melilotus officinalis, Melilotus alba, Melilotus arvensis), also called King's Clover and Sweet Clover, was once said to relieve rheumatism and is today used to relieve flatulence.
½ ounce drunk as tea once a day.
A wash is made of this flower and pored over the head to improve memory.

Mercury, Dog’s (Mercurialis perennis) is used for earaches and to restore fading hearing.
Fluid extract: up to 10 drops a day.

Mexican Creeper (Antigonon leptopus) is a stimulant.
5 grams of herb to 1 liter of water, once a day.

Mezereon (Daphne mezereum), also called Dwarf Bay and Spurge, is an irritant, but is sometimes applied to venomous bites and is a potent laxative.
Whole herb: 10 grains; fluid extract: 2 – 10 drops a day.

Mint, American Horse (Monarda punctata), also called Monarda, is applied externally for rheumatism and is ingested for flatulence.
½ ounce drunk as tea up to 3 times a day.

Mint, Wild (Mentha sativa), also called Marsh Mint, Whorled Mint and Hairy Mint, is a stimulant and an astringent.
½ ounce drunk as tea up to 3 times a day.

Mint, Pepper (Mentha piperita) is the strongest mint and is applied externally to sooth pain.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram.
The smell of this plant counters shock and helps to focus the mind.

Mistletoe (Viscum album) is a dangerous narcotic, a nervine and stops spasms.
Fluid extract: ¼ - 1 dram a day; leaves: 2 ounces to ½ pint of water, 1 tablespoon a day; whole herb: 10 – 60 grains a day.
This plant is used to know secrets and also for good luck in hunting. Wands made from this plant ward off thieves.

Moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia), also called Creeping Jenny, Herb Twopence and Serpentaria, is one of the best plants for wounds.
Up to 10 grains a day.
As the name implies, the plant is used in money spells.

Monsonia (Monsonia ovata) is used in cases of ulcerations in the lower intestines.
Fluid extract: 1 – 2 drams every four hours for up to 7 days.

Monstera (Monstera deliciosa) is used for circulation and a healthy heart.
15 -30 grams a day.
The scent of the plant is supposed to free one of inhibition.

Mountain Pretty Face (Triteleia ixioides) is questionably toxic.
The scent of the flower is supposed to help those with low self-esteem.

Moss, American Club (Lycopodium complanatum), also called European Ground Pine, is used to remove obstructions from the liver and spleen.
10 – 60 grains a day.

Moss, Common Club (Lycopodium clavatum) is used to suppress urination and is applied externally for skin conditions.
10 – 60 grains a day.

Moss, Cup (Cladonia Pyxidata) is an expectorant.
Up to 4 ounces a day up to 3 times a day.

Moss, Hair Cap (Polytrichium Juniperum), also called Ground Moss, Golden Maidenhair and Female Fern Herb, is a powerful diuretic.
4 ounces drunk as tea once a day.

Moss , Iceland (Cetraria islandica) is given for gastro-intestinal problems and bleeding coughs.
1 – 2 ounces drunk as tea up to 4 times a day.

Moss, Irish (Chondrus crispus) is given for kidney and bladder infections.
½ ounce drunk as tea up to 5 times a day.

Moss, Sphagnum (Sphagnum cymbifolium), also called Bog Moss, is a germicide, used to treat skin conditions and is an insect repellant.
Apply whole plant.

Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) is almost exclusively taken for feminine disorders; it is a nervine and stops spasms and hysteria. CAUTION: Avoid during pregnancy.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram; whole plant: 5 – 15 grains a day.
The herb is used in fertility spells.

Mother in Law Tongue (Sansevieria trifasciata) restricts the vocal cords.
Up to 2 grains.
This plant is used to start gossip.

Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), also called St John’s Plant, is used to calm “fits,” and is applied externally to bruises and swelling.
½ ounce drunk as tea up to 4 times a day.
The scent of this plant enhances dreams.
Burn to induce visions.

Mulberry, Red (Morus ruba L). The sap is applied to treat ringworms.
3 – 6 grains a day.

Mulberry, White (Morus alba) is used to clean the liver and improves vision and circulation.
3 – 6 grains a day.
The fruits are used for wisdom.

Mullein (Verbascum thapsus), also called Great Mullein, White Mullein, Candlewick Plant, Velvet Dock, Aaron's Rod, Jupiter's Staff and Hag's Taper, is potent in aiding the healing of the lungs.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram a day.
This plant is added to graveyard dirt, called Goofer Dust, to curse someone, but is sometimes carried to protect from wild animals.

Mushroom, Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantean). The sores from inside this mushroom are applied to open wounds to stop bleeding and to speed healing.

Mushroom, Magic (Stropharia cubensis, Psilocybe cubensis) is a psychedelic.

Mushroom, Maitake (Grifola frondosa) is an immune booster, lower cholesterol and blood pressure and promotes weight loss.

Mushroom, Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) is used for healthy lungs and liver, and is sometimes uses as a blood cleaner.
Up to 400 milligrams a day.

Mushroom, Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) is known to fight tumors and boost the immune system.

Mushroom, Toadstool (Amanita muscaria), also called Fly Agaric, can be deadly.
1 – 30 grams a day.
This is a psychedelic mushroom that is eaten in very small amounts to produce “spirit flight:”

Mushroom, White Jelly Leaf (tremella fuciformis) is used to fight tumors, lower cholesterol and produce more red blood cells.
Up to 200 milligrams a day.

Mustard, Black (Brassica nigra, Sinapis nigra) is an irritant but is sometimes applied externally to relieve congestion and is anti-cancerous. Snuff is used to stop headaches.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram a day.
The seeds are used to dissuade meddling persons and for hexing.

Mustard, Common Hedge (Sisymbrium officinale) is used for loss of voice.
Fluid extract: ½ - 1 dram a day.

Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) is an expectorant, heals wounds and may expel worms.
Whole plant: 10 – 30 grains a day.
The scent of this plant calms anger.
This is the most popular incense to use in rituals.


Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae. Other common names include Throw-wort, Lion's Ear, and Lion's Tail. The latter two are also common names for Leonotis leonurus. Originally from Central Asia it is now found worldwide, spread largely due to its use as a herbal remedy.

L. cardiaca, a member of the mint family, has a square stem and opposite leaves. The basal leaves are wedge shaped with 3 points while the upper leaves are more latticed. Flowers appear in leaf axils on the upper part of the plant and it blooms between June - August. The flowers are small, pink to lilac in colour often with furry lower lips. The plant grows to about 60-100 cm in height. It can be found along roadsides and in vacant fields and other waste areas.

Medicinal uses
Motherwort has a long history of medicinal use. The plant, and its use as a medicinal herb, originated in Central Europe and Asia, although it has long been in use in the North America as well. It is very useful for a variety of ills, and is very nourishing, much like stinging nettle or dandelion. The herb contains the alkaloid leonurine, which is a mild vasodilator and has a relaxing effect on smooth muscles. For this reason, it has long been used as a cardiac tonic, nervine, and an emmenagogue.

Among other biochemical constituents, it also contains bitter iridoid glycosides, diterpinoids, flavonoids (including rutin and quercetin), tannins, volatile oils, and vitamin A. Midwives use it for a variety of purposes, including uterine tonic and prevention of uterine infection. Susun Weed recommends it for combating stress and promoting relaxation during pregnancy, also claiming that, given during labor, it prevents hemorrhage.

Michael Tierra, on the other hand, contraindicates it for internal use during pregnancy, claiming that it has the tendency to cause bleeding and may induce miscarriage. It was historically used in China to prevent pregnancy and to regulate menstruation. Motherwort is also used to ease stomach gas and cramping, menopausal problems, and insomnia, although Susun Weed warns it may be habit forming if used regularly to combat sleeplessness. According to Tierra, the traditional Chinese medicine energy and flavors are bitter, spicy, and slightly cold, and the systems affected are the pericardium and liver. The fresh or dried leaves are used, and the recommended dosage is the standard infusion of one ounce herb to one pint boiling water or 10-30 drops of tincture three times daily.

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(Date Posted:02/13/2009 00:17 AM)

Verbascum Thapus
Herbe of Protection...Herbe of Purification...Religious Herbe
Invocatory: Circe, Odysseus, Ulysses
Folk Names: Aaron's Rod, Blanket Leaf,
   Candlewick Plant, Clot, Doffle,
   Feltwort, Flannel Plant, Graveyard
   Dust, Hag's Tapers, Hedge Taper,
   Jupiter's Staff, Lady's Foxglove,
   Old Man's Fennel, Peter's Staff,
   Shepherd's Club, Shepherd's Herb,
   Torches, Velvetblack, Velvet Plant
Gender: Feminine
Planet: Saturn
Element: Fire
Deity: Jupiter
Power: Courage, Protection, Health, Love
   Divination, Exorcism

The down on the leaves and stem makes excellent tinder when quite dry, readily igniting on the lsightest spark, and was, before the introductin of cotton, used for lamp wicks, hence another of the old names, 'Candlewick plant.' An old superstition existed that witches in their incantations used lamps and candles provided with wicks of this sort.
Grieve in A Modern Herbal goes on to write:
Both in Europe and Asia the power of driving away evil spirits was ascribed to the Mullein. In India it has the reputation among the natives that the St. John's Wort once had here, being considered a sure safeguard against evil spirits and magic, and from the ancient classics we learn that it was this plant which Ulysses took to protect himself against the wiles of Circe.
According to Frazer in The Golden Bough, an old, pagan custom which long survived in western France involved passing mullein through Midsummer's Eve bonfire. The mullein would protect the herds and the ashes from the fire were considered most magickal.
Few herbes have such a strong association with the elemental fire. There are many folk names ("torches" is but one) for mullein which demonstrate this connection. Mullein may be used to invoke the elemental energy of fire and bring literal fire into the ritual. Dried leaves may be soaked in oil. Some ingenious (and dramatic) practitioners dip them into a liquid mixture of saltpeter and water, and then hang them to dry. When tossed into a fire, they blaze brightly! This may be done in the ritual caulsron, bonfire or one's fireplace.
The entire flower stalk may be harvested and dried. You may choose to pick them when the flowers are at their prime, their yellow  a reflection of the Sun. You can also harvest them as part of the autumn harvest whne the mullein's work is done: the stalks naturally drying and turning brown, the flowers spent, the seeds sown naturally by the plant itself. The head of the stalk is then soaked in a tallow mixture so it may be carried, burning as a torch. Such torches would be ideal for lighting the dark and fearful night of Hallow's Eve. When you walk between tow rows of mullein torches lining the path to the Hallow's Circle, you know you are ready to commune with the dead!
Mystery schools and monasteries often grew mullein as protection, although growing mullein is like owning a cat! Seeding itself naturally, this biennial does not always take to transplanting. Seedlings must be allowed to grow to adequate strength. The ideal weather for transplanting is damp and no warmer than cool. Mullein grows best when left on its own. Each year holds surpirses. You never know where a mullein will spring up.
Modern usage includes an affinty between this herbe and women. A number of Dianic groups have introduced mullein into their herbal work, finding it a source of comfort and strength.
Synonyms---White Mullein. Torches. Mullein Dock. Our Lady's Flannel. Velvet Dock. Blanket Herb. Velvet Plant. Woollen. Rag Paper. Candlewick Plant. Wild Ice Leaf. Clown's Lungwort. Bullock's Lungwort. Aaron's Rod. Jupiter's Staff. Jacob's Staff. Peter's Staff. Shepherd's Staff. Shepherd's Clubs. Beggar's Stalk. Golden Rod. Adam's Flannel. Beggar's Blanket. Clot. Cuddy's Lungs. Duffle. Feltwort. Fluffweed. Hare's Beard. Old Man's Flannel. Hag's Taper.
---Parts Used---Leaves, flowers, root.
---Habitat---Verbascum thapsus (Linn.), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. It is met with throughout Britain (except in the extreme north of Scotland) and also in Ireland and the Channel Islands, on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste ground, more especially on gravel, sand or chalk. It flowers during July and August. The natural order Scrophulariaceae is an important family of plants comprising 200 genera and about 2,500 species, occurring mostly in temperate and sub-tropical regions, many of them producing flowers of great beauty, on which account they are frequently cultivated among favourite garden and greenhouse flowers. Of this group are the Calceolaria, Mimulus, Penstemon, Antirrhinum and Collinsia. Among its British representatives it embraces members so diverse as the Foxglove and Speedwell, the Mullein and Figworts, the Toadflax and the semi-parasites, Eyebright, Bartsia, Cowwheat, and the Red and Yellow Rattles.
Most of the flowers are capable of selffertilization in default of insect visits.
Unlike the Labiatae, to which they are rather closely related, plants belonging to this order seldom contain much volatile oil, though resinous substances are common. The most important constituents are glucosides, and many of them are poisonous or powerfully active.
A number of the Scrophulariaceae are or have been valued for their curative properties and are widely employed both in domestic and in regular medicine.
The genus Verbascum, to which the Mullein belongs, contains 210 species, distributed in Europe, West and Central Asia and North Africa, six of which are natives of Great Britain. The Mulleins, like the Veronicas, are exceptions to the general character of the Scrophulariaceae, having nearly regular, open corollas, the segments being connected only towards the base, instead of having the more fantastic flowers of the Snapdragon and others. They are all tall, stout biennials, with large leaves and flowers in long, terminal spikes.
---Description---In the first season of the plant's growth, there appears only a rosette of large leaves, 6 to 15 inches long, in form somewhat like those of the Foxglove, but thicker - whitish with a soft, dense mass of hairs on both sides, which make them very thick to the touch. In the following spring, a solitary, stout, pale stem, with tough, strong fibres enclosing a thin rod of white pith, arises from the midst of the felted leaves. Its rigid uprightness accounts for some of the plant's local names: 'Aaron's Rod,' 'Jupiter's' or 'Jacob's Staff,' etc.
The leaves near the base of the stem are large and numerous, 6 to 8 inches long and 2 to 2 1/2 inches broad, but become smaller as they ascend the stem, on which they are arranged not opposite to one another, but on alternate sides. They are broad and simple in form, the outline rather waved, stalkless, their bases being continued some distance down the stem, as in the Comfrey and a few other plants, the midrib from a quarter to half-way up the blade being actually joined to the stem. By these 'decurrent' leaves (as this hugging of the stem by the leaves is botanically termed) the Great Mullein is easily distinguished from other British species of Mullein - some with white and some with yellow flowers. The leaf system is so arranged that the smaller leaves above drop the rain upon the larger ones below, which direct the water to the roots. This is a necessary arrangement, since the Mullein grows mostly on dry soils. The stellately-branched hairs which cover the leaves so thickly act as a protective coat, checking too great a giving off of the plant's moisture, and also are a defensive weapon of the plant, for not only do they prevent the attacks of creeping insects, but they set up an intense irritation in the mucous membrane of any grazing animals that may attempt to browse upon them, so that the plants are usually left severely alone by them. The leaves are, however, subject to the attacks of a mould, Peronospora sordida. The hairs are not confined to the leaves alone, but are also on every part of the stem, on the calyces and on the outside of the corollas, so that the whole plant appears whitish or grey. The homely but valuable Mullein Tea, a remedy of the greatest antiquity for coughs and colds, must indeed always be strained through fine muslin to remove any hairs that may be floating in the hot water that has been poured over the flowers, or leaves, for otherwise they cause intolerable itching in the mouth.
Towards the top of the stalk, which grows frequently 4 or even 5 feet high, and in gardens has been known to attain a height of 7 or 8 feet, the much-diminished woolly leaves merge into the thick, densely crowded flower-spike, usually a foot long, the flowers opening here and there on the spike, not in regular progression from the base, as in the Foxglove. The flowers are stalkless, the sulphur-yellow corolla, a somewhat irregular cup, nearly an inch across, formed of five rounded petals, united at the base to form a very short tube, being enclosed in a woolly calyx, deeply cut into five lobes. The five stamens stand on the corolla; three of them are shorter than the other two and have a large number of tiny white hairs on their filaments. These hairs are full of sap, and it has been suggested that they form additional bait to the insect visitors, supplementing the allurement of the nectar that lies round the base of the ovary. All kinds of insects are attracted by this plant, the Honey Bee, Humble Bee, some of the smaller wild bees and different species of flies, since the nectar and the staminal hairs are both so readily accessible, though the supply of nectar is not very great. The three short hairy stamens have only short, one-celled anthers - the two longer, smooth ones have larger anthers. The pollen sacs have an orangered inner surface, disclosed as the anthers open.
In some species, Verbascum nigrum, the Dark Mullein, and V. blattaria, the Moth Mullein, the filament hairs are purple. The rounded ovary is hairy and also the lower part of the style. The stigma is mature before the anthers and the style projects at the moment the flower opens, so that any insect approaching it from another blossom where it has got brushed by pollen, must needs strike it on alighting and thus insure crossfertilization, though, failing this, the flower is also able to fertilize itself. The ripened seed capsule is very hard and contains many seeds, which eventually escape through two valves and are scattered round the parent plant.
---History---The down on the leaves and stem makes excellent tinder when quite dry, readily igniting on the slightest spark, and was, before the introduction of cotton, used for lamp wicks, hence another of the old names: 'Candlewick Plant.' An old superstition existed that witches in their incantations used lamps and candles provided with wicks of this sort, and another of the plant's many names, 'Hag's Taper', refers to this, though the word 'hag' is said to be derived from the Anglo-Saxon word Haege or Hage (a hedge) - the name 'Hedge Taper' also exists - and may imply that the sturdy spikes of this tall hedge plant, studded with pale yellow blossoms, suggested a tall candle growing in the hedge, another of its countryside names being, indeed, 'Our Lady's Candle.' Lyte (The Niewe Herball, 1578) tells us 'that the whole toppe, with its pleasant yellow floures sheweth like to a wax candle or taper cunningly wrought.'
'Torches' is another name for the plant, and Parkinson tells us:
'Verbascum is called of the Latines Candela regia, and Candelaria, because the elder age used the stalks dipped in suet to burne, whether at funeralls or otherwise.'
And Gerard (1597) also remarks that it is 'a plant whereof is made a manner of lynke (link) if it be talowed.' Dr. Prior, in The Popular Names of British Plants, states that the word Mullein was Moleyn in AngloSaxon, and Malen in Old French, derived from the Latin malandrium, i.e. the malanders or leprosy, and says:
'The term "malandre" became also applied to diseases of cattle, to lung diseases among the rest, and the plant being used as a remedy, acquired its name of "Mullein" and "Bullock's Lungwort." '
Coles, in 1657, in Adam in Eden, says that:
'Husbandmen of Kent do give it their cattle against the cough of the lungs, and I, therefore, mention it because cattle are also in some sort to be provided for in their diseases.'
The name 'Clown's Lung Wort refers to its use as a homely remedy. 'Ag-Leaf' and 'Ag-Paper' are other names for it. 'Wild Ice Leaf' perhaps refers to the white look of the leaves. Few English plants have so many local names.
The Latin name Verbascum is considered to be a corruption of barbascum, from the Latin barba (a beard), in allusion to the shaggy foliage, and was bestowed on the genus by Linnaeus.
Both in Europe and Asia the power of driving away evil spirits was ascribed to the Mullein. In India it has the reputation among the natives that the St. John's Wort once had here, being considered a sure safeguard against evil spirits and magic, and from the ancient classics we learn that it was this plant which Ulysses took to protect himself against the wiles of Circe.
The Cowslip and the Primrose are classed together by our old herbalists as Petty Mulleins, and are usually credited with much the same properties. Gerard recommends both the flowers and leaves of the primrose, boiled in wine, as a remedy for all diseases of the lungs and the juice of the root itself, snuffed up the nose, for megrim.
All the various species of Mullein found in Britain possess similar medicinal properties, but V. thapsus, the species of most common occurrence, is the one most employed.
For medicinal purposes it is generally collected from wild specimens, but is worthy of cultivation, not merely from its beauty as an ornamental plant, but also for its medicinal value, which is undoubted. In most parts of Ireland, besides growing wild, it is carefully cultivated in gardens, because of a steady demand for the plant by sufferers from pulmonary consumption.
Its cultivation is easy: being a hardy biennial, it only requires sowing in very ordinary soil and to be kept free from weeds. When growing in gardens, Mulleins will often be found to be infested with slugs, which can be caught wholesale by placing in borders slates and boards smeared with margarine on the underside. Examine in the morning and deposit the catch in a pail of lime and water.
---Parts Used---The leaves and flowers are the parts used medicinally.
Fresh Mullein leaves are also used for the purpose of making a homoeopathic tincture.
---Constituents---The leaves are nearly odourless and of a mucilaginous and bitterish taste. They contain gum as their principal constituent, together with 1 to 2 per cent of resin, divisible into two parts, one soluble in ether, the other not; a readily soluble amaroid; a little tannin and a trace of volatile oil.
The flowers contain gum, resin, a yellow colouring principle, a green fatty matter (a sort of chlorophyll), a glucoside, an acrid, fatty matter; free acid and phosphoric acid; uncrystallizable sugar; some mineral salts, the bases of which are potassia and lime, and a small amount of yellowish volatile oil. They should yield not more than 6 per cent of ash. Their odour is peculiar and agreeable: their taste mucilaginous.
---Medicinal Action and Uses---The Mullein has very markedly demulcent, emollient and astringent properties, which render it useful in pectoral complaints and bleeding of the lungs and bowels. The whole plant seems to possess slightly sedative and narcotic properties.
It is considered of much value in phthisis and other wasting diseases, palliating the cough and staying expectoration, consumptives appearing to benefit greatly by its use, being given in the form of an infusion, 1 OZ. of dried, or the corresponding quantity of fresh leaves being boiled for 10 minutes in a pint of milk, and when strained, given warm, thrice daily, with or without sugar. The taste of the decoction is bland, mucilaginous and cordial, and forms a pleasant emollient and nutritious medicine for allaying a cough, or removing the pain and irritation of haemorrhoids. A plain infusion of 1 OZ. to a pint of boiling water can also be employed, taken in wineglassful doses frequently.
The dried leaves are sometimes smoked in an ordinary tobacco pipe to relieve the irritation of the respiratory mucus membranes, and will completely control, it is said, the hacking cough of consumption. They can be employed with equal benefit when made into cigarettes, for asthma and spasmodic coughs in general.
Fomentations and poultices of the leaves have been found serviceable in haemorrhoidal complaints.
Mullein is said to be of much value in diarrhoea, from its combination of demulcent with astringent properties, by this combination strengthening the bowels at the same time. In diarrhcea the ordinary infusion is generally given, but when any bleeding of the bowels is present, the decoction prepared with milk is recommended.
On the Continent, a sweetened infusion of the flowers strained in order to separate the rough hairs, is considerably used as a domestic remedy in mild catarrhs, colic, etc.
A conserve of the flowers has also been employed on the Continent against ringworm, and a distilled water of the flowers was long reputed a cure for burns and erysipelas.
An oil produced by macerating Mullein flowers in olive oil in a corked bottle, during prolonged exposure to the sun, or by keeping near the fire for several days, is used as a local application in country districts in Germany for piles and other mucus membrane inflammation, and also for frost bites and bruises. Mullein oil is recommended for earache and discharge from the ear, and for any eczema of the external ear and its canal. Dr. Fernie (Herbal Simples) states that some of the most brilliant results have been obtained in suppurative inflammation of the inner ear by a single application of Mullein oil, and that in acute or chronic cases, two or three drops of this oil should be made to fall in the ear twice or thrice in the day.
Mullein oil is a valuable destroyer of disease germs. The fresh flowers, steeped for 21 days in olive oil, are said to make an admirable bactericide. Gerarde tells us that 'Figs do not putrifie at all that are wrapped in the leaves of Mullein.'
An alcoholic tincture is prepared by homoeopathic chemists, from the fresh herb with spirits of wine, which has proved beneficial for migraine or sick headache of long standing, with oppression of the ear. From 8 to 10 drops of the tincture are given as a dose, with cold water, repeated frequently.
---Preparation and Dosage---Fluid extract, 1/2 to 1 drachm.
Formerly the flowers of several species of Mullein were officinal, but Mullein no longer has a place in the British Pharmacopoeia, though Verbascum Flowers were introduced into the 4th Edition of the United States National Formulary, as one of the ingredients in pectoral remedies, and the leaves, in fluid extract of Mullein leaves, made with diluted alcohol were directed to be used as a demulcent, the dose being 1 fluid drachm.
In more ancient times, much higher virtues were attributed to this plant. Culpepper gives us a list of most extraordinary cures performed by its agency, and Gerard remarks that:
'there be some who think that this herbe being but carryed about one, doth help the falling sickness, especially the leaves of the plant which have not yet borne flowers, and gathered when the sun is in Virgo and the moon in Aries, which thing notwithstanding is vaine and superstitious.'
A decoction of its roots was held to be an alleviation for toothache, and also good for cramps and convulsions, and an early morning draught of the distilled water of the flowers to be good for gout.
Mullein juice and powder made from the dried roots rubbed on rough warts was said to quickly remove them, though it was not recommended as equally efficacious for smooth warts. A poultice made of the seeds and leaves, boiled in hot wine, was also considered an excellent means to 'draw forth speedily thorns or splinters gotten into the flesh.' We also hear of the woolly leaves being worn in the stockings to promote circulation and keep the feet warm.
The flowers impart a yellow colour to boiling water and a rather permanent green colour with dilute sulphuric acid, the latter colour becoming brown upon the addition of alkalis. An infusion of the flowers was used by the Roman ladies to dye their hair a golden colour. Lyte tells us, 'the golden floures of Mulleyn stiped in lye, causeth the heare to war yellow, being washed therewithall,' and according to another old authority, Alexander Trallianus, the ashes of the plant made into a soap will restore hair which has become grey to its original colour.
The seeds are said to intoxicate fish when thrown into the water, and are used by poachers for that purpose, being slightly narcotic. According to Rosenthal (Pharmaceutical Journal July, 1902), the seeds of V. sinuatum (Linn.), which are used in Greece as a fish poison, contain 6 to 13 per cent of Saponin. Traces of the same substance were found in the seeds of V. phlomoides (Linn.) and V. thapsiforme (Schrad.), common in the south of Europe, which have been used for the same purpose. V. pulverulentum of Madeira (also used as a fish poisoner) and V. phlomoides are employed as taenicides (expellers of tapeworm).
From "A Modern Herbal" and Full Moon Paradise

(Artemisia vulgaris)

Folk names: Artemis Herb, Felon, Muggons, Naughty Man, Old Man, Old Uncle Henry, St Johns Plant.

Gender: Feminine

Element: Earth

Deities: Artemis, Diana

Planet: Venus

Magical Uses:
Associated with the Moon on account of it’s dream-enhancing properties and can also aid in meditative divination and lucid dreaming. It can be used as a stuffing in Dream Pillows, drunk as a tea or burned as an incense. In Traditional Chinese Medicine it is considered ‘warming to the womb’, increasing both circulation and fertility in women (although it should not be taken if pregnant). It is a common component of herbal smoking blends as it contains Thujone – the same active ingredient found in the drink Absinth. The strong odor of Mugwort also makes it useful as an insect repellant and for protecting stored clothes from moths.
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